In the Great Patriotic War have tangible, tangible symbols.Famous examples of art glorified Russian arms to the whole world (T-34 tanks, attack aircraft IL-2 Pe-2 bombers, automatic PCA), produces an enormous, unprecedented in human history runs.The surviving copies of these formidable fighting units took their place on the pedestal.But there were quite simple in appearance and size are not enormous defensive means, it deserves to be named a monument.Anti-tank held back the Nazi hordes attack no less effective than the well-known anti-tank guns and gun-sorokopyatki, or rather, helped our gunners, anti-tank riflemen, acting in concert with them.
1939.Europe without the "hedgehogs»
Hitler started the war, armed with light tanks and the doctrine of "Blitzkrieg".Rapid roll mobile armored, coverages, "pots" - this technology, applying the Nazis took over most of Europe, not bothering a long siege and protracted battles.For the Sudetenland, they had to meet the barrier, but the Czech anti-tank were unab
When German tank men first saw our anti-tank, they are quite puzzled, and some of them even mocked "those stupid Russian," I think that the iron fist of the Wehrmacht can be stopped or at leastdelay "Now this."Indeed, some combination ingenuous welded from ordinary beams or rails, a height of only a meter or even lower.After looking through binoculars that mysterious thing, the Germans decided that he really is not dangerous, it is not even dug into the ground.Here are the Czechs, they, like real Europeans came to the problem of thorough, in the manufacture of concrete barriers used, does not prevent, however, to move them.Thinking Panzerwaffe commanders gave the command to attack.It soon became clear that not all so simple ...
German tanks in the early years of the war (TI, T-II and T-III) were mild.This meant that their weight does not exceed 21 tons, and the bottom book virtually absent.And in their construction present an important drawback - the front transmission.That she was in first place on encountering an anti-tank.A piece of I-beam punched thin metal bottom and destroy the mechanism.German gearbox - a piece complex and expensive.Especially Tank.But that's not all ... The main danger was a very different circumstance.
How does an anti-hedgehog
That small size steel "hedgehog" makes it an effective tool.If he was great, the problem would be much less.He stared at the frontal armor, engage first gear and then slowly, slowly ... Soviet anti-tank strove, rolling, get under the bottom, breaking the grip with the ground tracks.Trying to "move out" and led to disastrous results at all.The bottom of the strut, the oil passage flows, gearbox jammed.And all this destruction can only be considered sad, and even then only in the event that because of the parapet at this moment firing antitank guns or artillery does not fulfill marksmanship on poorly protected the lower horizontal section hulls.There is already close to a detonation of ammunition, and gasoline is about to break out.I need to leave the car, and then the infantry threw a spark.In general, jealous of the German tank hunters at a time was not enough.
"Star" of General Michael L. Gorikkera
In fact, he was a star, and every pursuit, generals.Served ML Gorikker head of the Kiev Tank Technical School.But it is the other famous "asterisk".
Gorikker - an example of the Russian officer, two George Cross, obtained in the German war, confirmed that he was not only smart, but also dare.
After Germany attacked at once and there was a question about the anti-tank weapons.The requirements were simple but rigid: technological simplicity, availability of materials and the manufacture of high efficiency.
Being competent engineer (especially in the field of armored vehicles), ML Gorikker made many calculations, after which its proposed anti "hedgehog".Plans were approved in July produced a few prototypes and test them on site.The role of the "target" of the device bezzaryadnogo played light Soviet tanks T-26 and BT-5, they surpassed German counterparts (in particular, the chassis have been much better, and the transmission back), but still badly affected.So, in the arsenal of the Red Army, a new tool to combat enemy armored vehicles, called Gorikkera asterisk."Hedgehogs" named after its veterans seems tricky to pronounce the name of the inventor was not easy.But to get a little, you should still be able to use.
By July all enterprises frontline cities (Odessa, Sevastopol, Kiev and many others) have the necessary equipment and got the job to produce anti-tank.All machine-building factories have become the military, with human resources issues did not arise, experts enough.
technology was simple, for every "hedgehog" required three segments I-beam of less than one and a half meters.It is best if these items were made of solid steel, but most often used rails, tram or train, they were always at hand.
They should cook or firmly connected in any other way so that upon application of a certain force the finished product could be rolled without breaking.
Effective use was not enough to know how to make an anti-hedgehog required to learn some features of application of this tool, the PHE in combat conditions.
Firstly, it is best to set on the surface is sufficiently smooth but not slippery, otherwise it will be easy to move by means of simple auxiliary devices (rope with a hook or loop, for example).Great frozen ground or asphalt.
Secondly, it is important to the distance between the rows of elements of defense (and "hedgehogs" should be a lot, one does not solve anything).It should be one and a half meters (first and second) and two and a half - for the next tier.As in any fortification, the more protection circuits, the better.
Third, the "hedgehogs" in the ranks may be bonded to each other, but the next line should be autonomous from the previous one.
Fourth, the use of barbed wire is undesirable.For her special mount.
Fifth, better approaches to mine.
violation of these simple rules in terms of the front led to a decrease in the effectiveness of combat, as well as attempts to make the "star Gorikkera" larger than the recommended instructions.
way, the inventor, who can be called a genius (for simple solutions), had other merits, he received many government awards, both before and after the war, including the Order of Lenin.And for the "hedgehogs" government gave him a camera FED.
war continued, and came the long-awaited turning point, after which the defense of the Soviet generals had never dreamed.Only offensive on all fronts!And then the war ended in triumph.
Many heroes perished in the anonymous high-rises, closing their bodies homeland.In each village, town or village through which swept a fiery shaft front, today is a monument.Anti-tank became a symbol of indomitable rebelliousness of all the peoples of the USSR, who were able to turn the neck disgusting Nazi vermin.Now they can do more and put on pedestals.So they stand as silent sentries, recalling the harsh pore.
In 1966, close to the center of Moscow, on the 23rd kilometer of the Leningrad highway, was set an unusual monument.Stylized antitank obstacles gigantic structure marked the point at which the clash between the advancing German troops and four division militias made up of citizens of different professions, ages and destinies.Memorial dedicated to the memory of Muscovites, not trembling in the battle for the capital of his own.Anti-tank in Khimki - one of the many monuments that honor the memory of our ancestors.The invention was Gorikkera steel.But not only in a metal case.
Retreating Nazis tried to use Soviet "hedgehogs" for the defense of Berlin and other cities of the then Third Reich.They are not helped ...