To understand what is black and white settlement, how do they differ from one another, you must first understand the meaning of the term, its origin and when Russia appeared these formations.
very origin of the word "settlement" is derived from the change of the term "freedom", which explains the meaning of the noun investigated.As it relates to the settlements, it is easy to assume that these territorial entities from something released, likely from taxes and duties.Even in X-XI centuries first mentioned this term.In XII-XVI passed its progressive development, which reached its climax with the Romanovs.Granting certain privileges at all times serve as an incentive either to develop new land, whether for the development of any fishery.Benefits were varied, most of the inhabitants of the settlements or groups of settlements were exempt from taxes and various types of military duty.
White settlement differed from the black, whose inhabitants belonged to no
its peak white settlement was reached in the early years after the Time of Troubles.People fled from excessive state taxes (for the townspeople in Russia XV-XVIII c. There were a number of monetary and natural duties) under the rule of feudal lords.Thus, taxes on other townspeople "neobelennyh" people who were subject to census also dramatically increased, which was the cause of their discontent and riots, the most famous of which was the "Salt", which came during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.The reason erupted largest urban uprising was unprecedented tax increases, especially on essential goods consumption.Thus, the cost of salt increased from five cents to two hryvnia for pud.
«No, OPRICH sovereign ...»
People fled from state taxes, and voluntary "zakladnichestvo" under the rule of feudal lords was rampant.In revenue declined sharply, and in 1619 convened by the Zemsky Sobor on this subject.It was decided to return all defected to white settlement of people in the bosom of the state tax.In order to fulfill this unpopular decision created a detective order according to which unwilling to come back and runaway townspeople track and exiled to Siberia.Thus began the elimination of the white settlements.And taken in 1649. The Council's position is abolished them entirely.At the beginning of the XVIII century, after the first act began door-and then the poll tax, and urban areas received council, settlements were abolished completely.
But here and there mention of them preserved in the name of the village or area of a large village, which give holders of old-world charm.A striking example is white Sloboda.Kursk region, where Belovo region is the administrative center like no other, rich in names that have come out of ancient Russia.White Sloboda itself lies on the banks of the river Ilek, which in turn is a tributary of Psel.Nearby is the village Girya and the nearby railway line is called "Lgov GEST."The name of the administrative center of the historic White Sloboda.Here, in 1664 settled Cossacks, or, as mentioned above, the "white man" free of duties and taxes.In general, in Russia the word had a very widespread - Sloboda or Slobodka called settlements, whose inhabitants were not serfs.Also called commercial or artisan towns.Therefore, in the history of the country so many names, which include the term - German, Yamskaya, Trading, Musketeers District, and so on.