Fundamental interactions

Despite the fact that various substances contained quite a lot of elementary particles, the fundamental physical interactions are represented by four types: strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational.The latter is considered the most comprehensive.

Gravity affects all macrobody and microparticles without exception.Exposed to the gravitational influence of absolutely all elementary particles.It manifests itself in the form of universal gravitation.It controls the most fundamental interaction of global processes occurring in the Universe.Gravity provides the structural stability of the solar system.

In accordance with modern concepts, fundamental interactions are due to the exchange of particles.Gravity is formed through the exchange of gravitons.

fundamental interactions - gravitational and electromagnetic - are by nature long-range.The corresponding force may occur at considerable distances.These fundamental interactions at the same time have their own characteristics.

electromagnetic inter

action is described the same type of charge (electrical).This charge may have a positive or negative sign.Electromagnetic forces, unlike the gravitational force (gravity), can act as forces of repulsion and attraction.These interactions are due to the chemical and physical properties of the various substances, materials, living tissue.Electromagnetic force is actuated and the electronic and electrical equipment, communicating with each other charged particles.

fundamental interaction known outside a narrow circle of astronomers and physicists to varying degrees.

Although less known (in comparison with other types), the weak force plays an important role in the life of the universe.So, if it were not for the weak interaction, then went out to the stars, the sun.These forces are short-range.The radius of the weak interaction about a thousand times smaller than that of nuclear power.

nuclear forces are the most powerful of the other.Strong interactions are determined only connection between hadrons.Active in the atomic nucleus nuclear force between nucleons is its manifestation.Strong interaction about a hundred times more powerful than electromagnetic.Differing from gravity (as, indeed, and electromagnetic), it is short a distance that is greater than 10-15 m. In addition, a description of its possible with three charges of forming a complex combination.

Range is considered the most important feature of the fundamental interactions.Radius of action is called the maximum distance that is formed between the particles.Beyond it the interaction can be neglected.Small radius characterizes the strength of both short-range, large range - as a long-range.

As noted above, the weak and strong interactions are considered short-range.Their intensity decreases quite rapidly with increasing distance between particles.These interactions occur in small, inaccessible to the perception of the senses distances.Therefore, these forces were opened significantly later than the others (only in the twentieth century).At the same time it has been applied fairly complex experimental setups.The gravitational and electromagnetic types of fundamental interactions are considered to be long-range.They are distinguished by a slow decrease with increasing distance between the particles and are not endowed with a finite range.