fruit was Alexei Mikhailovich "quietest" - from two marriages, he had 16 children.It is an interesting fact that none of the nine daughters did not marry, and boys born in the first marriage to Miloslavskaya, were very painful.Only one of them, Ivan V, being amazed by all diseases (scurvy paralysis), lasted up to 27 years.He became the father of five girls, one of which - Anna - Russian rule for 10 years.
Who who who have to
Native elder brother Ivan, Theodore A., lived to the full 20 years, of which he was the king of six years - from 1676 to 1682.His first marriage had a son, Ilya, who died along with the mother immediately after birth.Heirs left, therefore inherited the throne of his younger brothers - Ivan and mother by his father Peter, whose mother was Naryshkin.He became a great ruler of Russia.
young but determined
himself king Theodore A. received a challenge to the eldest son of the throne after two died of his older brothers - Dmitry (in infancy) and Alex (16 years of age).
heir king's father declared it in 1675, and a year later he became king.Fedor Alekseevich was a very long title, because Russia was not yet a unified state, and listed all the principalities and khanates under its jurisdiction.
King was young.Of course, from those who want to get into the coaches was not lights out.True, many have completed a "voluntary" and not a reference.Stepmother Naryshkin was exiled to Transfiguration with Peter.Perhaps fortunately?After Life Guards regiment comes from those events.By the middle of 1676 was sent into exile and Matveev, a relative of his father, the first Russian "Westerner", which had previously almost unlimited power in the country.
natural talent and a great teacher
Theodore A. was a creative person - composed poems, owned musical instruments and sang pretty well, versed in the art.According to contemporaries, in deathbed delirium he read from memory Ovid.Not all monarchs, dying, remembered classics.The person was obviously outstanding.
Fedor was lucky with the teacher.Simeon, a Belarusian-born writer and theologian, a major public figure of Russia, took the training.Being a mentor royal children, he did not leave the public and literary activity - founded a printing house in Moscow, he opened a school, wrote poetry and plays, treatises and poems.Theodore A. Under his leadership, translated and rhymed some psalms of the Psalter.Theodore A. Romanov was well educated, knew Polish, Greek and Latin.Especially for him secretaries under the leadership of Simeon of Polotsk was preparing a kind of overview of the international events.
Due to the fact that his reign was short-lived (not enough for a month to 6-year term) and pale between bright significant period (the reign of his father, Alexei Mikhailovich "quietest" and brother of Peter I the Great), heTheodore A. Romanov monarch remained obscure.And representatives of the dynasty they do not really brag about.Although he had the mind and the will and talent.He could be a great reformer and inverter, the author of the first Russian perestroika.And he became a forgotten king.
At the beginning of his reign all power was concentrated in the hands Miloslavskys and their entourage.Fyodor III had the will, and in fact he was a teenager to move them into the shade, and to bring people to him is not very noble, but smart, active, enterprising - IM Iazykov and VV Golitsyn.
Board Fedor Alekseevich noted significant changes.
Born in 1661, already in 1678, he orders the beginning of the census and enters homestead taxation, with the result that the Treasury begins to grow.Strengthening the state through a tightening of serfdom contributed to the abolition of the decree of his father not to extradite fugitive peasants subject to receipt of them in the army.These were only the first steps.Board Fedor Alekseevich laid the foundation for some of Peter I adopted reforms.So, in 1681, a series of events that shaped the foundation and allowed Peter to hold provincial reform, and in the last year of his life Fyodor III prepared a draft on the basis of which were created by Peter's "Table of Ranks."
first man with that name was Fedor Romanov family cat - one of the direct ancestors of the dynasty.The second was Patriarch Filaret (Fyodor Nikitich Romanov).The third was the king Theodore A. Romanov - an unusual personality, strong and unjustly forgotten.Besides severe hereditary disease he was suffering from an injury - at the age of 13 years during his winter holidays moved sled, which drove the sisters.Times were such - his mother died in childbirth along with newborns, scurvy cure was impossible (it took the form of the plague), fastening belts in the king's sleigh was not.It turns out the man was doomed to an early death and the inability to finish the conversion.As a result, we forgot about it and went to the glory of others.
All in the name of the country's internal policy
Fedor Alekseevich was aimed at the good of the state, and to improve the existing situation he sought to cruelty and despotism.
He transformed the Duma, increasing the number of its representatives to 99 people (instead of 66).The king put them in the primary responsibility of government decision-making.And it is he and not Peter I, who began to give way to people of humble, but educated and active, able to serve for the good of the country.He destroyed the system of civil service positions, directly dependent on the nobility of origin.The system of localism has ceased to exist in 1682 right at the meeting of the Provincial Council.To this law did not remain on paper only, Fyodor III ordered to destroy all the bit of the book, which was legitimized by getting posts for tribal affiliation.This was the last year of his life, the king was only 20 years old.
Extensive reorganization of the state
Policy Fedor Alekseevich directed to mitigate, if not destroy cruelty prosecution and punishment.He abolished the chopping off of hands for theft.
Is not worthy of wonder a law against luxury?Before his death, he decides to establish a Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy.At the same time it was open and seminary.What is most surprising, Theodore A. first starts to invite teachers from abroad.Even shaving beards and shortened hair was under Tsar Feodor.
convert the tax system and apparatus of the army.Taxes have become reasonable, and the population began to pay them more or less regularly, to replenish the treasury.And most surprisingly, he curtailed the rights of the church, greatly limited its intervention in the secular and state affairs, began the process of liquidation of the patriarchate.Read on and you wonder, after all this is attributed to Peter!Obviously, despite all the intrigues of the royal court, he loved his older brother, was able to appreciate his reforms and transformation and worthy of their finish.
Policy Feodor Alekseevich Romanov cover all national economic sectors.There has been active construction of temples and public buildings, there were new fiefdoms, stronger boundaries, broke gardens.Hands reached up to the sewer system of the Kremlin.Special words deserve homes, designed by his order, a lot of which still exists today.Theodore A. managed to almost completely rebuild the wooden Moscow in stone.He provided Muscovites interest-free loans for the construction of standard chambers.Moscow was transformed before our eyes.Thousands of homes have been built, thus solved the housing problem of the capital.For some it is a pain, the king was accused of squandering the treasury.However, in the Russian Fyodor it turned into a major power, and her heart, Red Square, has become the face of the country.Setting he was no less surprising - enterprising, well-educated people from humble names worked with him in the glory of Russia.Here, Peter followed in his footsteps.
foreign policy success
Internal reorganization of the state's foreign policy complements and Fedor Alekseevich.He had already tried to return our country to the Baltic Sea.Bakhchisarai peace treaty in 1681 annexed the Left-Bank Ukraine to Russia.In exchange, the three cities of Kiev became part of Russia even in 1678.New post appeared near the southern city of raisins, so was annexed to Russia most of the fertile land - about 30 thousand square kilometers on it and form a new fiefdoms provided nobles who had served in the army.And it paid off in full - Russia won over her superior in numbers and equipment of the Turkish army.
When Theodore A. and not under Peter, laid the foundations of the army regular, forming a completely new principle.Regiments were created Lefortovo and Butyrsky that are not delivered then Peter at the Battle of Narva.
inexplicable reticence merits of the king, because when it literacy in Russia has tripled.In the capital - at five.The documents show that it was under Theodore A. Romanov poetry flourished under him, not at Lomonosov began to take shape early odes.You can not count the fact that he managed to make the young king.Many now speak of the triumph of historical justice.It would be good if its restoration to pay tribute to the king, not at the level essays, and perpetuate his name in the pages of history textbooks that everything from childhood know about how it was a great ruler.