Through Soviet films about the war, the majority of people have the strong opinion that the mass of small arms (photo below) German infantry during World War II - is automatic (SMG) of the "Schmeisser", which is named by the name of hisdesigner.This myth, and to this day it is actively supported by national cinema.However, in fact, this popular machine was never a massive weapon of the Wehrmacht, and made it not Hugo Schmeisser.However, first things first.
How are myths
All staff should be aware of domestic films dedicated to German infantry attacks on our positions.Brave blond guys marching without ducking while leading fire from rifles "from the hip."And most interesting is that this fact does not surprise anyone, except those who were in the war.According to the movies, "Schmeisser" can conduct aimed fire at the same distance as the rifles of our soldiers.In addition, the viewer when viewing these films had the impression that the entire staff of the German infantry during World War II, armed wit
fluttering myth automatic pistol MP-40
the small arms of the Wehrmacht in World War II is officially called SMG (Maschinenpistole) MP-40.In fact, this modification of the machine MP-36.The designer of this model, contrary to popular opinion, is not a gunsmith H. Schmeisser, not less famous and talented artist Heinrich Vollmer.And why him so firmly stuck the nickname "Schmeisser"?The fact is that Schmeisser owned a patent for a store that is used in this sub-machine guns.And in order not to violate his copyright, in the first batches MR 40 on the receiver stores stamped inscription PATENT SCHMEISSER.When these machines were as booty to the soldiers of the Allied armies, they mistakenly thought that the author of this model of small arms, of course, Schmeisser.So for the MP-40 and given the nickname stuck.
Initially, the German High Command is arming guns only command structure.Thus, in the infantry divisions MP-40 were to be only the commanders of battalions, companies and offices.Later, automatic pistols supplied drivers of armored vehicles, tanks and paratrooper.Mass is the infantry of no arming or in 1941 or after.According to the archives of the German army, in 1941, the troops had only 250 thousand machines MP-40, and it is 7.234 million people.As you can see, submachine gun - it's not a massive weapon of World War II.In general, for the whole period - from 1939 to 1945 - were produced only 1.2 million of these machines, while in parts of the Wehrmacht was designed more than 21 million people.
Why not armed infantry MP-40?
Although experts subsequently acknowledged that the MP-40 - this is the best small arms of World War II in the infantry divisions of the Wehrmacht had his unit.The reason is simple: sighting range at this machine on group goals is only 150 meters, and for a single - 70 m. This is despite the fact that Soviet soldiers were armed with Mosin rifle and Tokarev (SVT), sighting range which was 800 m in groupgoals and 400 m single.If the Germans fought with such weapons have been shown in the Russian films, they would never have been able to reach the enemy trenches, they just shot would be like in the dash.
Shooting on the fly "from the hip»
submachine gun MP-40 in the conduct of fire vibrates, and if you use it, as shown in the film, the bullets are always flying wide of the goal.Therefore, for effective fire must be firmly pressed to the shoulder, after expanding butt.In addition, this machine never fired long bursts as it heats up quickly.Most often beaten 3-4 short burst cartridge or were single fire.Despite the fact that the performance characteristics indicated that the rate of 450-500 rounds per minute, in practice, to achieve such a result never succeeded.
can not say that it is small arms of World War II was a bad, on the contrary, it is very, very dangerous, but it must be used in close combat.That is why the armed them first sabotage units.They are also often used the scouts of our army and the guerrillas respected this machine.Application melee lightweight high-velocity firearms gave tangible benefits.Even MP-40 is very popular among men of criminals, and the price of the machine on the black market is very high.And deliver them to "black archeologists" who in places of military glory excavations and very often find and restore WWII weapons.
What can we say about this carbine?The most common small arms in Germany - a rifle "Mauser".It is aiming at shooting range is up to 2000 m. As you can see, this option is very close to the Mosin rifle and SVT.This carbine was developed in 1888.During the war, this design was substantially upgraded, primarily for cost reduction, and rationalization of production.In addition, the small arms Wehrmacht was equipped with telescopic sights, and it manned units snipers.Rifles "Mauser" while was in service with many armies, such as Belgium, Spain, Turkey, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia and Sweden.
At the end of 1941 in the infantry units of the Wehrmacht for military trials received the first automatic self-loading rifles Walther G-41 and G-41 Mauser.Their appearance was due to the fact that the Red Army stood more than half a million such systems: SVT-38, SVT-40 and ABC-36.In order not to give the Soviet soldiers, German gunsmiths urgently had to develop their own versions of these rifles.The test results were better recognized and taken up by the G-41 system (Walter system).The rifle is equipped with a percussion mechanism of a hammer type.Designed for firing only single shots.Its ammunition capacity of ten rounds.This automatic self-loading rifle designed for aimed fire at a distance of up to 1200 m. However, due to the great weight of these weapons, as well as low reliability and sensitivity to contamination, it was released in small series.In 1943, designers overcome these shortcomings, offered an upgraded version of the G-43 (Walter system), which was released in the amount of several hundred thousand units.Prior to her appearance Wehrmacht soldiers preferred to use a trophy rifle SVT-40 Soviet (!) Production.
Now back to the German gunsmith Hugo Schmeisser.He developed two systems, without which cost the Second World War.
Small arms - MP-41
This model has been developed in conjunction with the MP-40.This machine is significantly different from the familiar to all of the movies "Schmeisser": the forearm had trimmed the tree, which protects the fighter from burns, was more severe and long-barreled.However, the small arms of the Wehrmacht did not receive wide distribution and are available for long.Total produced about 26 thousand units.It is believed that the German army refused this machine in connection with the claim of the company ERMA, declared illegal copying its patented design.Small arms MR-41 to use part of the Waffen SS.And also successfully used by the Gestapo units and mountain rangers.
MR-43 or StG-44
Next weapon Wehrmacht (photo below) Schmeisser developed in 1943.At first it was named MP-43, and later - StG-44, which means "assault rifle» (sturmgewehr).This automatic rifle in appearance, and in some specifications, resembles a Kalashnikov (which came later), and is significantly different from LL-40.Range conduct aimed fire at it amounted to 800 m. At StG-44 even provided for the possibility of fixing 30 mm grenade launcher.For conducting sniping designer has developed a special attachment that fits over the muzzle and change the trajectory of a bullet to 32 degrees.The mass production of these weapons only hit the fall of 1944.During the war, it was released about 450 thousand of these rifles.So few German soldiers managed to take advantage of such a machine.StG-44 supplied in the elite units of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen SS divisions.Subsequently, the weapon used by the Wehrmacht in the Armed Forces of the GDR.
automatic rifle FG-42
data copies intended for airborne troops.They combined the fighting qualities of the machine gun and automatic rifle.The development of weapons took firm "Rheinmetall" in the course of the war, when, after the evaluation of the results of the airborne operations carried out by the Wehrmacht, it was found that the sub-machine guns MP-38 does not fully meet the requirements of this kind of combat troops.The first tests of this rifle were held in 1942, and at the same time she was taken into service.In use said weapons to identify and disadvantages associated with low strength and stability during automatic firing.In 1944 he released the upgraded rifle FG-42 (Model 2), and the model 1 out of production.The trigger mechanism of the weapon allows automatic or single fire.The rifle is designed for standard 7.92 mm Mauser cartridge.Magazine capacity is 10 or 20 rounds.In addition, the rifle can be used for firing rifle grenades special.In order to improve stability when shooting under the barrel mounted bipod.FG-42 rifle is designed for firing at a range of 1200 m. Due to the high cost has been released in limited numbers: only 12 thousand units of both models.
Luger P08 and Walter P38
Now consider what types of guns were in service with the German army."Luger", his second name "Parabellum", was 7.65 mm.By the beginning of the war in parts of the German Army had more than half a million of these pistols.This small arms Wehrmacht were produced until 1942, and then replaced it with a more reliable "Walter".
This gun was adopted in 1940.He intended to fire 9 mm ammunition, magazine capacity of 8 rounds.Sighting range from "Walter" - 50 meters.It was produced until 1945.The total number of issued P38 pistol was approximately 1 million units.
Weapons of World War II: MG-34, MG-42 and MG-45
In the early 30-ies of the German military was decided to create a machine gun, which could be used as a heavy machine and as a manual.They were supposed to fire at enemy aircraft and equip tanks.That was the machine gun MG-34, designed by "Rheinmetall" and put into service in 1934. By the beginning of military operations in the Wehrmacht, there were about 80 thousand of these weapons.The machine gun can fire a single shot and continuous.For this purpose it has a trigger with two grooves.By clicking on the top shots were fired single shots, and when you click on the bottom - bursts.For it meant Mauser rifle cartridges 7,92x57 mm, with light or heavy bullets.And in the 40s they have been developed and used armor-piercing, armor-piercing tracer, armor-piercing incendiary and other types of ammunition.This conclusion suggests that the push for changes to weapons systems and tactics of their use became World War II.
Small Arms, which has been used in the company, and replenished with a new model gun - MG-42.It has been developed and taken into service in 1942.Designers significantly simplify and cheapen the production of weapons.So, when its production is widely used spot welding and stamping and the number of parts was reduced to 200. The trigger gun allows you to keep under review, only automatic fire - 1200-1300 rounds per minute.Such major changes have affected the stability of the unit when shooting.Therefore, to ensure the accuracy of recommended firing short bursts.Ammunition for a new gun are the same as for MG-34.Range aimed fire was two kilometers.The improvement of the design continued until the end of 1943, which led to the creation of a new modification, known as MG-45.
This gun weighed only 6.5 kg, and the rate of fire of 2,400 rounds per minute.Incidentally, a similar rate of fire could not boast of any one infantry machine gun at the time.However, this modification came too late and was not armed the Wehrmacht.
antitank guns: PzB-39 and Panzerschrek
PzB-39 developed in 1938.This weapon of World War II was used with relative success at an early stage to deal with tankettes, tanks and armored vehicles, have bulletproof armor.Against heavily armored tanks (B-1 of the French, the British "Matilda" and "Churchill", the Soviet T-34 and KV), this gun was either ineffective, or even useless.As a result, it was soon replaced by rocket-propelled grenades and anti-tank rocket-propelled guns "panzerschreck", "Ofenror" and the famous "Panzerfaust".In PzB-39 used cartridges of caliber 7.92 mm.The firing range was 100 meters, punching ability allows you to "stitch" the 35-mm armor.
«panzerschreck."This German light anti-tank weapon is a modified copy of the American jet gun "Bazooka".German designers have provided him with a shield that defended the arrow from hot gases escaping from the nozzle grenades.These weapons as a priority supplied antitank company of mechanized infantry regiments of tank divisions.Reactive guns were extremely powerful tool."Panzerschreck" is a weapon for group use and had a service account, consisting of three persons.Since they were very complicated, they require the use of special education payments.In total in 1943-1944 it was issued 314 thousand units of guns and more than two million rocket-propelled grenades to them.
Grenade "Panzerfaust" and "Panzerfaust»
first years of the Second World War showed that the anti-tank guns can not cope with the tasks, so the German military demanded antitank weapons, which you can equip the infantryman acting on the principle of "fire - threw."The development of single-use hand-held grenade launcher start HASAG firm in 1942 (chief designer Langvayler).And in 1943 it started production.The first 500 "Panzerfaust" entered the army in August of the same year.All models of antitank grenade launcher were similar in design: they consisted of the barrel (smoothbore drawn pipe) and nadkalibernoy grenades.The outer surface of the barrel welded hammer mechanism and sighting device.
«Panzerfaust" is one of the most powerful versions "Panzerfaust", which was developed at the end of the war.Range of shooting he was 150 m, and armor penetration - 280-320 mm."Panzerfaust" was the repeated use of a weapon.The trunk of a grenade launcher equipped with a pistol grip, which is a trigger mechanism, propellant charge placed in the trunk.In addition, the designers were able to increase the speed of the grenades.During the war it was made more than eight million grenade all modifications.This type of weapon caused significant losses to the Soviet tanks.So, in the battles on the outskirts of Berlin were destroyed about 30 percent of armored vehicles, and during street fighting in the capital of Germany - 70%.
World War II had a significant impact on small, including automatic weapons in the world, its development and use tactics.According to its results, we can conclude that, despite the creation of the most advanced weaponry, the role of infantry units is not reduced.Accumulated experience in the use of weapons in those years is relevant and today.