Voronezh State Academy of Arts
systemic organization of voice functions
(Podkopaev, MI System organization of vocal function // Questions vocal education: Guidelines for teachers of high schools and specialized secondary schools. M. - St..Petersburg, 2003. - S. 80 - 88)
One of the main features and amazing that nature endowed man is an audio speech, in particular, its specialized form - singing or vocal speech (the term used in caseswhen the phenomenon of singing is considered from the standpoint of physiology or acoustics).
known that the voice function, forming a sound component of vocal speech, has no specific anatomical organ systems, which in the strict sense could be called authorities phonation.For this function a person uses a respiratory, swallowing, ie,authorities initially intended for urgent and more important in the biological value of the function;phonation they serve as if by accident.The totality of these bodies for a long time called the vocal apparatus.Last
Usually, anatomical and physiological understanding of the vocal apparatus vocalists students receive under the basic discipline of pedagogical cycle - the course of vocal technique.In the short time period allotted program, students must receive and assimilate a lot of evidence from anatomy, physiology, acoustics, and an idea of the structure and activity patterns of the vocal apparatus.At the same time, the quality of this knowledge must conform to the objectives of the formation of an educated and skilled professionals, especially if the singer connects his career with pedagogy.According to tradition, the study of this section of the curriculum is built from the perspective of classical (organ) physiology, resting on a structural and analytical approach.With its position the human body is traditionally viewed as a combination of various bodies, combined nervous and humoral (hormonal) regulation.Any books on anatomy, physiology, etc.They are based on the principle of the organ, and include sections on individual anatomical systems - namely, cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular, endocrine, etc.Following this image, from the time of M.Garsia voicebox considering consisting of the following components: "generator" of sound - laryngeal tie-back (resonator) parts - pharynx, nasal cavity to the paranasal sinuses, the "energy" of the device - the trachea, bronchus, lung, respiratory muscles, articulation apparatus - mouth.tongue, teeth, lips, hard and soft palate.This states that "all the parts and functions of the organization are interconnected and regulated by the central nervous system" (op. At: Dmitriev LB, LM Telelyaeva, Taptapova SL et al. Phoniatrics and fonopediya.- M., 1990, p. P.20).But what unites these bodies do not have phonational specificity and belonging to different anatomical systems, integrated organization, what are the mechanisms of such association and to ensure the integrity of the functioning of the vocal apparatus?Organic and structural approach answers to these questions does not.In this context, application of this method to the study of the voice (vocal) function is limited and somewhat inconsistent because, in this case related to the limitation of formation of students' representation of an integrated organization of the vocal apparatus.
fundamentally new approach to the understanding of the physiological functions of the system postulated approach, as in recent years, and widespread use in the methodology of science.The physiology of a systematic approach based on the theory of functional systems (TPS on ), designed by a disciple of IPPavlova - Academician PKAnokhin and received a modern development in the works already his pupil - Academician KVSudakova.
as a pedagogical experiment on the vocal department of the Voronezh State Academy of Arts by the author of this work was an attempt to introduce elements of TPS as a methodological basis of teaching vocal technique with the system approach.The main objective in this case was a challenge to raise the student's creative thinking, one of the main features of which are systemic.
In this paper we restrict ourselves to setting out in general terms the experience of applying the basic provisions of the TPS system to study the principles of organization of voice (vocal) function of man.
Instead of classical physiology, anatomy following principles), TPS announces systemic organization functions.PKAnohin first drew attention to the fact that the systems of living organisms not only streamline their constituent individual elements, and combine them in order to obtain some concrete results of activities, namely to carry out certain essential functions.Therefore, these systems are called functional.According to Anokhin, the system in the physiology of a set of related specific function.From the result of the organizing system integrates the individual parts into a whole, and is thus, leading system-forming factor.It is to achieve a certain result, a functional system (FS).
Voice function, like all other human functions, is based on a systemic organization.The initial interpretation of the position of systemic organization of voice features we have used the basic tenets of TPS.Being common to all FS organism, they are typical for PS phonation and vocal speech.In general, the content of the basic tenets of TPS is the following.Organization of all FS organism has the same type of structure, which is typical for PS phonation.This structure includes the central and peripheral nodal components and mechanisms:
??as a result of the activities leading link FS (its "card") - something for which created the FS;
??apparatus, receptive properties (parameters) the results achieved - receptors results;
??feedback channels that transmit information to the central nervous system about the result of the act and the parameters of this result, which enables the body as a whole to assess the degree of success and the quality of its actions;
??central link FS allowing its agreed work and represents the union of elements of different levels of the central nervous system;
initial results of the FS as a system-forming factor of voice and vocal speech is the formation of the voice path of the acoustic signal, which already serves as a basis for the final performance - individual singing tone phonemes sung word, phrase.As prefinite, and the final result of the activity of PS have a number of independent variables, ie,are mnogoparametrichnymi.Some of them carry information about the structure of the acoustic voice (acoustic parameters) - height, power, spectral composition (presence or absence of a high and / or low singing formant, etc.).Other options contain information about the phonemic sound structure - artikulyayurnye (or kinesthetic) parameters.It is closely associated with the acoustic parameters allow to distinguish between the past and describe the location and method of formation of sound, ie,determine the characteristics of the pronunciation of vowels and consonants.
is important to note that the parameters are not only the result between speech and singing voice, but also within the different vocal genres - academic singing, pop singing, folk singing, etc.All parameters are determined by the result of the activities of physiological and biophysical processes that ensure its achievement, namely: 1) phonation, ensuring the generation of voice and its corresponding acoustic structure, and 2) the articulation of speech sounds providing education and defining the structure of the phonemic sound.Accordingly, the two organized and functional subsystems - FS FS phonation and articulation.
Thus there is selective mobilization of various organs and tissues belonging to different anatomical systems, to the appropriate file system.The inclusion of various organs, the aggregate of which is called the vocal apparatus in vocal FS is based on the principle of electoral bodies in various associations FS.Thus one and the same organ may be included in different FS, moreover, different FS or FS audio subsystem (as in the case of voice FS) to achieve the final results may use different or the same bodies.In this regard, any body vocal organs involved in many of the functions associated with phonation and is in this sense polyfunctional.Depending on the direction in which the FS or subsystem includes one or another agency of the vocal apparatus, to it have different requirements, but only the value of the acquired properties, which it manifests itself is in the FS.
From this perspective, one and the same body in different FS vocal speech acquires special various properties.For example, the trachea and bronchi are included in the FS zvukogeneratsii perform other functions, as compared with the same trachea and bronchi included in the FS phonational respiration.Or vocal folds completely different show their functional properties included, for example, the articulation of the FS, where they manifest fonemoobrazuyuschaya function or FS zvukogeneratsii where they serve as a source of acoustic energy.Similarly, the respiratory muscles are included in different FS associated with phonation, namely: a PS phonational breathing they operate pneumatic function and participate in the FS articulation mechanisms hyphenation.
FS phonation selectively include neural and hormonal regulation levels.Recent thus represented a sort of "arrangement" includes selectively from the endocrine system thyroid, gonads and adrenal glands.Neural mechanism is shown selective inclusion of various nerve centers.
Each of the elements is selectively included in the FS phonation.interacting with other elements of the system and actively contribute to the FS its final result.Such interaction elements FS TPS was called vzaimosodeystviya (PKAnohin).Vzaimosodeystviya components of the system is ensured by nutrisistemnyh relations and self vzaimosodeystviya defines the regulation of the system.
Any FS, including phonation FS is a self-regulating system.Self-regulation in the FS is provided by the presence of the controlling device, evaluating the final result.That device is the result of perceiving options peripheral nerve endings - receptors, bred in the vocal apparatus, and distant from him.The coded information about the parameter of the result achieved in the corresponding receptor enters the nerve centers (cerebral cortex, limbic system, which provides the emotional component of speech and singing, the centers of the medulla oblongata).On the basis of the information received happening selective involvement in the FS of voice and vocal speech patterns of different levels of the central nervous system for the mobilization of the executive organs and systems (sets of reaction).By the nature of the information received in the central nervous system receptors on the vocal apparatus, distinguish at least five kinds of sensitivity: auditory, vibration (having, as shown V.P.Morozovym, resonant nature), muscle, pneumatic (due to the air pressure in the resonant tract andthe work of the respiratory muscles), visual.In sum, they provide a specific set of singing sensations and perceptions about the inner workings of the vocal apparatus, or as they say, is formed in the mind of the singer's vocal and bodily scheme - a system of individual inner sensation that occurs when singing phonation.With the help of singer every moment controls his sound formation.How exactly he has R.Yusson."Every kind of vocal technique produces specific vocal and bodily scheme, the presence of which in turn stabilizes the technology" (3 p. 109).
Thus, the sensory system of the vocal apparatus (so-called "vocal analyzer" singer) performs supervisory and regulatory function.This FS phonation and vocal speech is leading the feedback channel: they are, as shown in the works V.P.Morozova when singing resonance technology is a vibrating channel which carries encrypted information about the activity of the vocal resonators, the least exposed masking effectexternal influences (acoustics performances, etc.).
important position TPS having practical value for vocal pedagogy is the question of the presence in the FS management apparatus.It is fundamentally important to the next.The FS phonation its central department - the brain has a complex cortico-subcortical neural structures representing foresight unit ("advanced simulation") and assess its performance.This unit ("acceptor of result of action" by Anokhin) "prejudge" the final properties of the result determines the feasibility and efficiency of selecting a program of action designed to achieve the final result, as well as directs human behavior through permanent comparison of entering the central nervous system bychannel feedback information about the parameters of the result achieved.It creates a kind of "image" of the target, which the singer is connected with the maximum activity of resonators and feedback channel, reflecting this activity - vibrating (resonator) sensations (Morozov, 2002, 2008).A primary role in the formation of the unit of foresight and evaluation of the final result has a standard range of a singer singing sounds in the vocal-pedagogical interaction of the teacher and the student.It is also of paramount importance in the enrichment device foresight properly formed in learning vocal skills, verbal instruction of the teacher, aimed at forming a resonant singing technique as well as the presence of the expressed motivation of the singer on the mastery of it resonant singing technique that provides real art of singing.
great attention in studies of architectonics FS vocal speech is paid to the executive mechanisms of voice, representing a set of acoustic and physiological processes aimed at achieving outcomes FS and providing the necessary professional qualities of the singing voice, the relevant parameters of the standard academic vocal.Of great importance in the study of the actuators have the basic research R.Yussona, Fanta, Sundberg.L.B.Dmitrieva.A special place in this area in its scientific and theoretical and practical significance are works executed by domestic scientists - professors V.N.Sorokinym V.P.Morozovym and whose ideas were embodied in the theories developed by them - theory speech (V.N.Sorokin, 1985) and resonance theory of the art of singing (V.P.Morozov, 2002, 2008).Last for vocal and vocal-performing and teaching practice is of paramount importance.Resonance theory of singing together with the theory of functional systems radically change existing ideas about the nature and functions of the actuators of the vocal apparatus.