DNA molecule and silent genes
whole living world is made up of cells.Animals, fish, birds, plants, fungi, germs, yourself, people are composed of cells.Outside the cell there is no life.The cells of all living organisms are similar in structure, chemical composition, metabolism, all the cells multiply by dividing.This is a very complex structure, virtually the entire complex, where 1 second are tens of thousands of responses.Unfortunately, we can not control the privacy of our personal cells.Here they enjoy immunity, which we are just beginning to overcome.The man in your life guided by reason, and the cells from which it is to live by the rules, which do not always coincide with our desires.But it is very possible that in the near future we will be able to find a common language with them and agree about something important for us and for them.
located in the center of the cell nucleus, within which are twisted into a double helix of Watson-Crick unique in structure and function of the DNA mo
DNA molecules are tightly packed into the protein envelope and form conglomerates called chromosomes.In human somatic cells, ie cells in his body, is diploid, or double set of chromosomes.They are 46 pieces, or 23 pairs.Each pair contains absolutely identical set of information.When a cell divides pairs of chromosomes apart, and each cell receives a complete set of information.Subsequently, the diploid number of chromosomes is restored.The human germ cells contain 23 chromosomes, but at fertilization, when the sperm and egg fuse, double set of chromosomes is restored.Thus there is a mixture of male and female data, causing the fetus gets signs and mom and dad.
set of all genes contained in the set of chromosomes of germ cells, called human genome.Full human genome contains about 80,000 genes.The DNA molecule is built, perhaps not as difficult as it is original.It is represented by two long threads.The filaments consist of nucleotides.Nucleotides - are chemical compounds consisting of three substances: a nitrogenous base, carbohydrate deoxyribose and phosphoric acid.Without going into details, we can say that the DNA of all of the organic world formed only four types of nucleotides.That's four letters, four characters of the alphabet of life: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).They are interconnected in a polymer chain length of hundreds of thousands of nanometers, more than 3 meters.This length of yarn to host the more than 3 billion. Nucleotide sequence which is coded and the whole genetic information.These two strands are connected to each other through hydrogen bonds and spirally wrapped around one another, forming a dense structure that holds so many secrets.The scientists faced the problem to reveal these secrets to decode the human genome, ie,identify all of the genes and determine their value.The task seemed inevitable and urgent, and in 1990 launched the project "Human Genome".
In the course of the main work has been deciphered the genomes of more than 800 plant and animal species, including the causative agents of many dangerous bacteria: tuberculosis, typhus, gastric ulcers, and others.It is vital to pharmacology.It has been developed vaccines against agents of these diseases, set up a group of new drugs to combat hereditary diseases.These drugs are more effective in comparison with the pre-existing, as are selective and directed action on the gene and protein targets.Strong positive momentum gained in the field of molecular medicine genetic disease diagnosis and treatment, and genetic engineering we have witnessed exceptional events, the most significant of which is probably the cloning.Cloning will preserve and propagate the brilliant discoveries of nature, and in the future of man.
Incredible prospects opened up by breeders.Building on the genetics of transgenic plants are allowed to dramatically increase the productivity of crops, completely eliminate losses from weeds and pests, and transgenic animals strike our imagination with its productivity, disease resistance, fertility.
Criminologists also have at their disposal technology that ensures absolute reliability in matters of identification of extremely small quantities of the material: a drop of saliva, a piece of hair, dandruff, and so on. D. Thousands of innocent people in the world have been justified, but real criminals got punishedbased on gene analysis.There was a robust mechanism for determining parenthood and relationship to address issues of inheritance of property, arising in the practice of law.
received an unexpected and unique results that require significant interpretation.Thus, for example, by comparison of the human genome with the genome of our closest relative chimps showed almost complete identity to thousands of parameters.In practice, they are only slightly greater than the differences between people from different ethnic groups.The man turned out to be much closer to animals than it might have been expected.Such a high degree of relationship gets stumped researchers and requires them to innovative approaches and solutions.Maybe some adjustments will be made to the theory of evolution of living matter.
Genetics, including the project manager & lt; Human Genome & gt;F. Collins, inspired by the success, formulated several ambitious forecasts for the near future.Since 2020 the market should see a cure for diabetes, hypertension, cancer and mental illness developed through genetic engineering, which allows sighting affect the damaged cells.Gene therapy on germ cells to avoid hereditary diseases.By 2040 it will be possible on archived individual human genome, and spend cataloging the genes involved in the aging process.This will increase the average duration of human life to 120 years, and in the future to give him much desired immortality.Finally, people will be able to control their own evolution.These projections all sounds fantastic, but it will take years, perhaps much lower, than those of which the scientists say, all it becomes a reality, and we will be others.
But now DNA molecule holds many more secrets and mysteries.Computer analysis of the genome of animals allowed to determine the proportion of DNA molecules with different functions.Here, geneticists have found astonishing facts.It was found that in many species, only a small part of the total sequence of the genome encodes proteins.Since a person only about 2% of the genome encodes protein, 48% of the genome are involved only in the initial stage of coding and further on protein synthesis are discharged, and more than 50% of the genome is composed of non-coding, repetitive DNA sequences, including, moreover, a largethe number of fragments of relic viruses.When comparing these data with the genomes of animals standing at different stages of the evolutionary ladder, researchers are faced with another paradox.It was found that the animals standing on a lower stage of evolution of the share of non-coding DNA is very small.In percentage terms, it goes like this.So bacteria, almost all the DNA is working, it's 90% and only 10% as it were useless.In yeast, it is 68% of the DNA encoding the 32% non-coding.Nematodes already ratio is 24% and 76% respectively.The body becomes more complicated, and the proportion of coding DNA regions is reduced, while the share of strange for us to information increases.Here, as it seems at first glance, one would expect the opposite result.F.Krik, considered "extra" DNA building "garbage", the costs and the evolution of a payment for the perfection of the rest of it.The unquestioned authority of the scientist for many years deprived the dignity deserved a huge part of a unique molecule.However, in recent years, a number of scientists do not recognize the authority, decided to bury the idea of "junk DNA" closest possible solution of secret non-coding DNA caused a lively debate among geneticists.Hundreds of articles have been written on the subject, it offered a lot of interesting developments.It was felt that the protective role of non-coding DNA, about the formation of a critical mass necessary to start some intracellular processes, the formation of cutting lines and gluing in alternative splicing.A D. Mattick, for example, believes that not all coding DNA - the same codes, so-called auxiliary ribonucleic acid, RNA.
We approached the problem of silent piece of DNA from the other side.It has been suggested that the DNA molecule is recorded and stored, not only the genetic information, but also the so-called critical information.The critical information related to the events that constitute a real threat to the existence of the body.Such information extraction technology has its own characteristics, which will be discussed below.
were selected for study ordinary brewer's yeast Saccharomyces group.Yeast is a wonderful model object eukaryotic cells for a variety of research in the fields of biochemistry, immunology, genetics.Yeast Genetics has developed very rapidly, was carried out a huge amount of work, both theoretical and applied.Finally, in 1996, it was completely sequenced the genome of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was the basis for a breakthrough in molecular systematics of yeasts.This allowed a direct comparison of the sequence of nucleotides in their genomes.That is why the yeast and have been chosen as the object of our research.
This type of yeast is represented by conventional eukaryotic, that is, having a core diameter of 3 cells - 7 microns.Fungi can withstand very low temperatures, and even at freezing do not die, but only freeze rolling all your metabolic processes.Well they feel warm environment, but at a temperature above 47 degrees their life processes are suspended, and at a temperature of 80 - 100 degrees, they die.
Therefore, the critical conditions for the fungus are temperatures close to 80 degrees.Influencing such temperatures on fungal cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae, changes were found in the sequence of nucleotides in a silent loci of DNA molecules.More aggressive effects involve changes in the coding part of DNA and threaten the viability of this small body.
Thus, silent loci DNA fungi recorded information about the adverse conditions of life-threatening.Moreover, these are the conditions that brought him serious damage, but he was able to survive with such a rewarding experience for yourself.Once in such conditions, the fungus is already aware of their disastrous consequences and take all measures to avoid them.The same thing happens with human cells.Our body is also made up of cells that have a certain degree of freedom and independence.They also record the critical information and are also trying to use it in their cellular life-threatening situations.The critical information is not stored in the cells as in the brain, it is recorded in sensations.Every sensation, whether visual images associated with people, buildings, terrain, where these have occurred, almost led to tragedy, events, smell taste, internal sensations, such as pain, sound, and certainly it is written in the DNA molecules.The man survived, information is recorded and the cells believe that he would be in such a situation it is this information will help him survive again.DNA molecules rather stable compounds and can store your data indefinitely.Therefore, the critical events recorded in its structure may be very, very old.
For clarity, try to give an example.It happened in the distant Persia.Persia was founded in the VI century BC.e.It was the greatest empire from Egypt to the Indus River.In 332 BC.e.Alexander the Great defeated the army of King Darius and captured rich city Persipol.For the desperate resistance, he gave the city for 3 days his soldiers to plunder.The citizens lived in fear.The magnificent palace, in his room, frantically praying young woman and asked the Lord for salvation.All around were the icons and burning candles.Slam the door breaks all locks and the room burst a mighty warrior.A short fight and a woman knocked down, lying unconscious on the floor.Her raped, we heard Greek, robbed the house and go.Damage done to the woman survived, and among other things, fortunately or unfortunately, became pregnant.All the sensations of this terrible day of icons, candles, Greek language, the pain, the roar was recorded in its DNA molecules.Woman safely delivered and handed over all the information to your child.Travelling in a series of several dozen generations of this information, in the end, it turned out to be in the genes of a young man in our time, and, oddly enough, in Russia.
In any case, this information may be required.Naturally, it will be in demand in a situation similar to the one in which it was received.In that distant time, the body was able to survive, finding themselves in a similar situation, he would mechanically reproduce all the sensations and actions which are recorded in its DNA.If he is in the church, where there are icons and the candles are burning, it will start to roll on the floor and shouting threats.In this case we will say that it moved in demons.If he suddenly spoke in Greek, then we will say that in a previous life he lived in Greece.In fact, the young man never lived nor in Greece, nor in Persia, he does not have demons.He has written in the DNA molecules critical information that prevents him to live peacefully and that with the help of psychoanalysis, Freud W can be successfully removed.
What can we say in conclusion on this issue?Critical information, directly threatening the existence of the very cells of our body is written in the silent loci of the DNA molecule.In humans, this information takes up almost the entire volume of the DNA molecule, as for the great period of its existence of such situations has been a huge amount.The situations were often similar, so we are seeing in silent loci in a large number of repetitions.Over time, the old records may be erased as the information recorded in the silent loci significantly younger than in coding genes.Thus, once again confirms the fact that in nature there is no place to chance, and every phenomenon in it has its purpose.And we, the people, need to understand that our behavior is not always dictated by reason and, therefore, it is not always appropriate to the circumstances.