The ABCs of Nursing.

epigraph : No problem can not be too small so as not to give it attention.No problem can not be too large to be for it not to take ...

In previous articles, we started talking about hair washing, but rather about how to care for them.In addition, we tried to understand the components that must be entered in modern products, with an emphasis on shampoos.Today we talk about the beneficial bioadditives - the main essence of modern care product.The conversation will be long and not much even boring, but after a couple of articles you will be able to understand the composition of shampoos and not reading the advertising slogans.

Modern shampoos ceased to be the usual means of hygiene and became very powerful, "complex", acting on the hair and scalp.In fact, besides the usual "cleansing" and "delete" they face the challenge "effectively influence on the scalp" - and sometimes "treat" and "recover", ie the work is not just on the surface of the cuticle, but also "to penetrate into the deeper layershai

r "," offsetting "or even" proteziruya "lost parts of the protein structure of the hair (keratin and cystine), which is quite an easy task to.

Basically, reading further, not only narrows to the theme "shampoo", because, in fact, there is no difference "where" and "what kind" of the additive - the principle of its effects just do not change, because the nature can not be changed.

In the last article, we discussed the role and compositions of functional additives and we were only "useful supplements."Frankly, we consider only the "basic" or "common" additives, as fantasy technologists and manufacturers to catch up with me - just a barber and only the far-time (in the past, we can say living) Master of Chemistry is not possible.

proteins (proteins, polypeptides)

Proteins - is high molecular weight organic nitrogen-containing substances, the most important part of any living organism.In living organisms, the amino acid composition of proteins is determined by the genetic code, with the natural (i.e., natural) synthesis in most cases, the 20 standard amino acids, but it is generally considered that the protein molecule contain from 100 to 10,000 amino acids.Proteins of different water-soluble and these differ from each other (the majority of proteins are dissolved in water).For insoluble proteins include, for example, keratin (composed hair, fur of mammals, birds' feathers, and so on. P.) And fibroin (included in silk and cobwebs) ... The chemical composition proteins are divided into: simple - consistOnly amino acid residues, and complex - addition of amino acids can contain any or more compounds.If it is metal, such proteins are called metalloproteins if carbohydrates proteins called glycoproteins if fats that - lipoproteins if nucleic acids - nukleoprteidy. by their function proteins are divided into: structural - a kind of armature, which gives shape to many cells and organelles.Collagen and elastin - the main components of the intercellular substance of connective tissue (such as cartilage), and from the other structural protein keratin consist hair, nails, feathers and some shells; catalytic - provide the necessary flow of biochemical reactions; transport - carry out transfer of substances into the cell and out of the cell; protective - associated with the human immune system; hormones - allow for regulation of many vital processes (eg growth, puberty, etc).According to the structure of molecules proteins are divided into: fibrillar - have a linear structure of the molecules that form the fibers (eg cortex of the hair, muscle, skin, etc.).Is a fibrous substance, mostly insoluble in water and brine.Provide tissues plasticity, elasticity and incredible durability; globular - molecules are folded into a ball = globule (includes almost all known enzymes, antibodies, some hormones).

Possible applications of proteins in the means to care

can talk a long time about the proteins, but I fear that you read above was not particularly interesting or understandable.It is important to understand that, despite the wide range and variety of features and functions, the possibility of using proteins in formulations for skin care and hair care is limited due to their size: it is a very large molecule, and by themselves they can not penetrate the not damagedskin.In addition, there are studies that suggest that the immune system is very sensitive to the appearance of foreign proteins, triggering inflammation and allergic reactions (Attention! This is what could be the essence of your problems!).However, the current extensive use of cosmeceuticals proteins, especially of animal origin that can have a positive impact even when cutaneous application (most popular compensating proteins - collagen, elastin, keratin, and various antioxidants).Particular attention is being given vegetable proteins (legumes, soya - are very popular and you can say "fashionable", wheat, oats, almonds, etc.) and protein from seafood, which is not present in the human body (marine collagen, chitosan). basic useful properties of proteins in 's Skin products for hair and scalp: 1. good skin absorption;2. The possibility of penetration through the horny layers of the skin to the hair follicles;3. The effect of the formation of the film and the establishment of protection against the aggression of the environment;4. The reduction of irritation from the surfactants in shampoos and balms;5. limit the swelling of hair;6. improve the elasticity and plasticity of the hair and scalp;7. strengthening shine.

hydrolysates In the natural form of the proteins rather poorly soluble and therefore unsuitable for use in cosmetics.Also do not forget about their huge size, that's why, proteins (from any source) is converted to hydrolysates .

Under the influence of water, temperature and long molecules specific enzymes cleave proteins into smaller, i.e. smaller.These methods in chemistry called acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis.The hydrolysis products - hydrolysates - are biologically active, but do not have the allergic and irritant complete proteins.Quite often digests confer properties cations, ie "+" of charged particles, allowing them to exercise a high degree of substantivity (sedimentation) to the hair.That is, they are adsorbed on the hair 3 times better than simple hydrolysates, so - provide what is now very fashionable to call "prolangirovanny" that is, "long-lasting" effect.

Hydrolyzed Keratin - obtained by the hydrolysis of wool, hooves and horns of cattle and exhibit the highest identity to the skin and hair.This mixture of amino acids, some of which contain sulfur, silica and the like.Today, chemists have learned how to introduce them not only in the means to care for hair, but even in styling!Prosthetic lost parts of the hair on the cuticle (vyglazhivaya it) and in the deep layers of the hair.It strengthens the hair and stimulates their growth.

collagen hydrolyzate - is obtained from the skin, cartilage and tendons of cattle, has a very complex amino acid composition (of the 16 essential amino acids contains 9).It promotes a very strong moisturizing hair and scalp regenerate and compensate for amino acids in the skin, provides a nutritious and wound-healing effect.Effectively fills the voids inside the hair, making them visually and tactilely thicker and denser.The ideal filler for thin, lifeless, prone to hair loss.Often introduced into the means "for the volume" and in conjunction with the cellulose creates a fairly stable and, more importantly, noticeable effect

elastin hydrolyzate - often obtained from connective tissue of bovine animals.It is well absorbed by the skin and has a water-holding capacity, restores elasticity of skin tissue and is used for the care of the scalp for various purposes.

wheat gluten hydrolyzate - bind free - SH groups (which are indicators of damaged hair), that is actually restore lost chemical bonds inside and on the surface of the hair.In large quantities contains glutamic acid , which together with other amino acids provide nutrition and protection of damaged hair.It has a moisturizing effect on the skin and hair, forming a protective film on the surface.A beneficial effect on hair, restoring their shine and improves elasticity.The funds for the care of the skin actively neutralize free radicals thanks to vitamin E, which is especially important in the lines for age hair.

hydrolyzate of milk - has extremely high ability to restore hair structure, thanks to such as glutamic amino acids, aspartic acid and lysine.It is recommended as an effective moisturizer in creams, emulsions and shampoos.Casein, which is also a part of has the ability to soothe irritation and it is often introduced into the formulations for sensitive and inflamed skin.

soy hydrolyzate - has a high content of glutamic acid and aspraginovoy.Both acid cystine and cysteine ​​restore bridges, and thus have the ability to a strong recovery of fibrillar proteins, even at a very deep layers of the hair.It frees the hair of static and facilitates combing both wet and dry hair, giving them shine.Provides protection of the skin and hair from moisture loss, even with a fairly significant increase in temperature (thermal effects).

yeast hydrolyzate - in addition to the amino acid contains a huge amount of vitamins, especially B and enzymes.It provides powerful and confident power scalp, rejuvenating it, through enhanced regeneration.

hydrolyzate chitosan - unique building material containing amino acids and nucleoproteins derived from shells of molluscs living in the depths of the sea.For deep prosthetic hair, it has a long regenerating effect and prevents split ends and breakage.It contributes to the natural increase in fine hair, increases the strength of the hair, increases the resistance to various chemical hair treatments.It restores and smooths the cuticle.It restores and maintains an optimum balance of vitamins and moisture has antimicrobial properties.

Amino as we have seen, produce proteins, are interconnected by means of polypeptide bonds.According to the present point of view with the help of regulatory peptides individual cells and entire organs communicate with each other.Too many hormones (insulin, growth hormone, endorphin) - peptides.They work in the brain, affecting our health by regulating the activity of immune cells.Affect the development and termination of inflammatory processes, protecting against pathogens and toxins.That is why peptides are often used in the media to combat the bacteria (for oily skin), fungi (in means of dandruff), and inflammation of the skin (for sensitive skin).Peptides help to improve the condition of the weak and damaged hair.Especially powerful hair are specific peptides glycine , valine and lysine .

lipids (fats)

play a greater role in the functioning of the scalp and hair.The sebaceous glands open into the hair follicle and the fat falls on the hair shaft, forming a protective layer of fat (known as fatty acid layer), and on the scalp.In essence, the function of shampoo and belongs to not only remove the dirt and fats.However, removal of all grease, results not only in discomfort from excessive dryness of the scalp, but also to the loss of the protective function of the skin.Besides, for a long time we all know that a strong, almost total removal of fat shampoo, leads to even more of its allocation.That is why, for restoring the lipid layer of the skin for a healthy natural administered modified fats - fatty acids and oils.Unfortunately, natural vegetable oils and animal fats is quite overwhelmed - superfatting skin and hair.

Fats can interact with the skin in two ways: either spread over the surface of the skin, making it softer and velvety - is their traditional action;or to penetrate deep into the epidermis and act already as biologically active substances.

= sphingolipids Ceramides However, fatty acids and cholesterol, ceramides are the basis of the lipid mantle of the stratum corneum.The hair and skin ceramides fill the intercellular space, acting something like a cementing substance keratin cells.The introduction of ceramide in the shampoos and conditioners improves the structure of hair, especially after coloring, perm, insolation.

Lanolin - flush with sheep's wool, is produced by the sebaceous and sweat glands of sheep.Well softens the skin, eliminates peeling, and is therefore recommended for dry, easily irritated skin.It has a strong softening effect, maintains firmness and elasticity of the hair and skin.

Kriolan = liquid lanolin (lanolin oil) - compared with lanolin, it is easier to penetrate into the deeper layers of skin and hair, leaving no sensation of stickiness and fat.It is often used in lines for sensitive skin and for frequent washing of children's cosmetics.

Terlan = hard lanolin - compared with lanolin is less water-holding capacity, but it creates a dense coating on the surface of the hair and skin.Formulated into creams and hair conditioners.Other lanolin derivatives (acetylated lanolin) to create a surface film in all kinds of styling and hair sprays.

spermaceti - a peculiar kind of wax that is contained in a special cavity of the sperm whale, and serves him for echolocation.In its composition is close to spermaceti wax, fat located in the skin of man, so it is as calcitonin human skin and, therefore, rarely causes an allergic reaction.Due to the ban on hunting sperm whales using its synthetic substitutes.Spermaceti has a regenerating effect on the skin, even effective in the treatment of eczema, neurodermatitis, and chemical burns.Introduced into the means to care for sensitive skin prone to irritation.

Hoof fat - receive rendering fatty tissue of limbs of cattle.It is unique in that it includes an incredibly important for the elasticity of the hair and skin oleic, palmitic, stearic, linoleic acid and lanolin and vitamins F. Use of funds for strengthening of hair and hair follicles.It stimulates hair growth, through the production of collagen (the lack of development that leads to aging and to degradation of the hair roots).Linoleic and linolenic acids are essential for the synthesis of the elements constituting the cellular tissue.

egg oil - extracted from the egg yolk.This oil is a rich source of phospholipids and fat-soluble vitamins A, E, D. It is used in anti-aging lines for dry skin and hair.Vegetable oils

oil is called fats derived from plants.At room temperature, most of the oil is liquid except cocoa butter, palm oil, shea butter and coconut.Unfortunately, oil is quite sensitive to changes in the external environment (heating, micro-organisms), which creates some problems for their use.Because of the need to add preservatives or quite serious antioxidants, vegetable oils often cause allergies.About

oil can speak for a long time and still is not enough, because it is oil since ancient times most actively used in all branches of cosmetology.And on this I can only say that in addition to fatty acids (in fact, it is - oil) of different types (saturated and unsaturated), they contain waxes, phytosterols, phospholipids, and others. Substances favorably affecting the skin and hair.But frankly, the value is low as a cosmetic ingredient, is largely determined by the list contained in it fat-soluble vitamins.