The ABCs of Nursing

Alphabet care.

lines for hair and scalp.

Hair loss (alopecia).Dandruff

epigraph: The laws of thought - the laws of being informed AI Herzen

each master is quite clear that for a successful salon works - coloring, perms, styling and even hairstyles - need a quality raw material, which for us was thereand the hair will be.

main guarantee of quality has been and remains «homework» client, that is, those care products that are used every day at home.

In the last article we discussed the main line of hair care and scalp, on the Russian market, most manufacturers of cosmetics for hair.In particular we discussed the features of the care of problem skin head - oily and seborrheic.Today we will talk about two very urgent, so important for us problems - different types of alopecia and dandruff.Just Let us examine the most popular active ingredients, how they work and most importantly - the rules of use of preparations necessary for a successful solution.

very difficult to clearly attribute t

he problem of hair loss, to what is concrete block "hair care" or "care of the skin of the head."At first glance, the hair falls out, but on the other hand, the problem with the hair, or rather, with his rod - no.On the other hand, there is no problem with the scalp ... That to understand the causal relationship is correct and be caring, consider the physiology of the hair and will understand the reasons for their loss.

Physiology hair

For a full understanding of the processes taking place with hair loss and the reasons for them, must consider the physiological basis of the life of the hair.

Like any living organism the hair follicle (and, consequently, the entire hair) in its development undergoes several stages or phases: anagen, catagen and telogen .

Anagen - this is the phase of active growth.At this time, the hair is continuously growing, and it increases the length of 1-1.5 cm -2 per month (until no valid data).

anagen lasts from 2 to 5 years for men and between 2 and 15 years for women. Now you understand why many client complain that they can not grow hair longer than a certain length (pardon the slogizm) - anagen term short.Also a connection between hair lifetime and thickness - the shorter anagen phase, the hair thinner (and vice versa), because the required number of layers of the cuticle simply does not have time (or may not) be formed.

It is important to remember that we Hoti or not, for each hair follicle number of potential the anagen phase is limited !On average, this cycle is repeated 25-27 times in all.That is why it is important to kind to hair, because a large change in the direction of hair growth rate, the life of the hair and the number of repetitions of the anagen phase not possible !It does not matter that this promise was written on the packaging with ampoules or shampoo you "high prices" bought yesterday.The maximum of what is possible, it does not reduce the inherent genetic terms that dramatically reduced because of our not correct pinning high hopes with hair (incorrect care or staining).

Catagen - a period of rest - in the life of the hair takes about 3 weeks .During this period, the division of matrix cells slows to a crawl and soon cease altogether, the hair as it falls into "hibernation", that is, through the papilla medulu misses no food or oxygen.At the end of catagen, the hair bulb is still separated from the papilla and hair goes to stage a suicide, followed by inevitable loss.

Under telogen cell renewal is stopped completely, the bulb is completely separated from the dermal papilla, and begins to actively move towards the surface of the scalp, but the most important thing is that at the "bottom" of the hair bag begins to form a new life - new hair. phase lasts approximately 90-100 days.

When a person is healthy and is not subject to the state with a specific hormonal (pregnancy, menopause, thyroid dysfunction, etc.), about 85% of hairs are in the anagen phase, 1% - in the catagen phase and 14% intelogen phase.However, fortunately, the change of cycle "growth - rest" takes place in the neighboring follicles are not at the same time, that is, they are not synchronized in the neighboring follicles - the hair will not fall all at once.Physiological norm is the daily loss of about 3% of the hair of their total number.

Hair loss or alopecia

Some men God has a beautiful head, and the rest - the hair.

To my chagrin, in addition to genetic limitations, we must learn to understand that each subsequent hair automatically worse than the previous , so there is no doubt that the main problem related to hair, is hair loss,which may take various forms and have different causes.Not quite right to equate the term alopecia and baldness Russian word. Alopecia - the concept is very capacious, the term is applicable to both small excess of the physiological amount of daily hair loss, and in cases of mass loss of hair on the face and body.

Main group alopecia : 1. Scar - proceeds with the formation of the scar, which is completely or partially atrophied hair follicles and therefore - not reversible. 2. not scar - atrophy of hair follicles is not observed, and this, in some cases, may cause hair growth again.

very briefly review the common practice of hairdressers types of alopecia.

- Diffuse alopecia is the most frequent case of alopecia, with which customers come to us - hairdressers.This type of loss is called a temporary symptomatic and because it is not seldom is the first symptom of several diseases and pathological conditions.

divided into two subgroups :

1. telogen - as a result of certain reasons, there is some displacement of the% between the phases of hair growth, ie, significantly shortens the anagen and catagen, a correspondingly larger number of passes in the telogen phase andfalls.It is important to take into account the fact that the loss begins 36-48 days after exposure to the causative factor. main reasons occurrence is considered to be not the right food (all sorts of diets, overgrowth, poor digestion of protein, vegetarian);as psychosomatic stress and everyday;illness, forced to be treated with antibiotics;All types of anesthesia (including local);complications of influenza and hepatitis;long elevated temperatures.

2. anagenovoy - loss, which occurs at a stage where the hair should grow strongly.This is a consequence extended poisoning of the body as a result of a rather serious diseases - tuberculosis, syphilis, diabetes, or chemotherapy for cancer.I sincerely hope that you will not have to face this (the Lord bless you and your family), as well as with anagen alopecia in chronic alcoholics and drug addicts.

- Alopecia areata or gnёzdnaya.In this case, the hair falls out from a certain area (the place and status can be any number), which is always quite clearly delineated.In the case of a running situation, the centers merge and affected the whole head, sometimes even fall out eyebrows and eyelashes.Outbreaks occasionally disappear - "overgrown" hair, and may appear in the same place or in different places.In addition to the scalp, hair loss Alopecia can affect hair on the body, then it will be called the universal baldness , but it occurs very rarely.Despite the enormous amount of research related with this type of hair loss causes until the end remain valid.

And finally, one of the most common forms of hair loss - androgenic alopecia. It occurs in both men and women.It is shown, above all, a fairly rapid thinning of the hair in the frontoparietal regions, but the total amount of hair is not getting smaller.The only reason for this type of alopecia is an androgen - male sex hormone - testosterone, which to a greater or lesser extent, there are men and women.It is known that men predisposed to baldness, vascular unit of the hair follicle has an increased sensitivity to testosterone.Under the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase androgen converted into the more active hormone 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (it is often abbreviated to DHT ).Then, after a cascade of biochemical reactions, the complex moves into the cell nucleus, which violates the synthesis of proteins of the hair follicle and, in particular, reducing the production of collagen, which, as you recall, is a framework for creating the hair bags.As a result, there is a reduction in the size of the follicles.The duration of the anagen phase is markedly reduced and, in the end there is a transformation of healthy hard long hair in thin short fuzz.Besides, each subsequent hair sitting in the scalp is not as deep as the previous one.

During puberty, when the amount of androgen in their blood vessels follicle staunchly spazmiruyutsya, nutrition of the hair follicle is broken and as a result, over the next few years, it may be balding.It is important to note that this hypersensitive to androgens have only the hair in the parietal and the occipital areas secondary heads.Hair on the human body when it begin to multiply and grow at double speed.

Women extremely rare full or zonal pattern baldness, although, in principle, both men and women the same amount of hair falls out and the cause is the same - testosterone.But remaining at the ladies hair like survivors of the battle the soldiers, in neat rows distributed throughout the volume of the head.This is explained by the presence of a large number of women aromatase enzyme , which transforms testosterone into the female sex hormone - estrogen, suppressing, so its effect on hair follicles.

shampoos and preparations for hair loss

These lines are intended for the care of dropping out or prone to hair loss, and is most often used is not one product, but a whole complex.This is important because one shampoo serious solutions to this problem will not only not enough, and in principle - not possible.After all, the "additional products" just work on the problem of hair loss.In my opinion, better to choose such products in liquid form - this ensures the scalp from congestion and on the occurrence of side effects, and packaged in vacuum packaging (ampoules or bottles) - it will help to preserve all the active ingredients.

If the customer is not possible to just buy a full set, do not insist and just give preference to ampoules, and no shampoo. same shampoo, then it is better to choose the most neutral, as its primary goal - to gently cleanse the hair and scalp to prepare for the introduction of further active ingredients

Common active ingredients in the formulations of the loss:

1 .Complex amineksil (Aminexil) = minoxidil .The drug is quite effective in men, but, unfortunately, apart from side effects, is one more feature: some time after the cancellation of his situation with the hair returns to its original state.IeMinoxidil allows hair to grow as long as you use it. basic principle of - stimulates collagen production, lack of development which leads to aging and to degradation of the hair roots + nutrients, consisting of glucose and of linoleic acid required for the synthesis of the elements that make up the cellular tissue.Amineksil not only reduces hair loss and contributes to their thickening, but also reduces the synthesis of collagen around the hair follicle, thus contributing to the prevention of fibrosis (destruction of the hair follicle).

2. Kromakalin (Cromacalin) - stimulates DNA synthesis in keratinocytes and hair follicles.This natural herbal medications that prevent hair loss and stimulate new growth.The formulations are generally effective, however, accurate data about the effect of prolonged preservation after canceling them, are not available.

3. Prokapil (Prokapil) - a triple blow for reasons of alopecia: reduction of microcirculation, follicle atrophy caused by the influence of androgens and the loss of the extracellular matrix of the follicle ("aging of the follicle").By stimulating the metabolism prokapil capillary effect of delaying aging, therefore, it is also an excellent tool for the prevention of hair loss.

4. Adenosine - a completely new and very powerful stimulant of hair growth, opened in Japan.Adenosine stimulates hair growth by influencing the hair growth factors - fibroblast growth factor stimulates the hair follicles and stimulates growth of blood vessels (vascular factor).

5. procyanidins B2 and C1 - powerful natural hair growth stimulants, leads to a thickening of the hair and reduce hair loss by inhibiting (suppressing) special processing enzyme involved in the regulation of the hair cycle.

6. copper peptides - have potent anti-inflammatory effects, as well as affect the thickening and lengthening of hair growth stage, due to the effect on degidrogestosteron DHT.Ideal when seborrhea and androgenetic alopecia.

7. Plant extracts - most are drugs that cause a pronounced hyperemia on the surface of the scalp, as the main task of all drugs for hair loss prevention is to improve the blood stream, and thus improve breathing and nutrition of hair follicles.

Most often used extracts: peppers (active ingredient - kapsaitsinovaya acid, which is the maximum concentration found in beans), hops (one of the strongest and most traditional natural fitoestragenov), Ivy (active B vitamins)Thai ficus leaves (in the east it is considered one of the most powerful aphrodisiacs) kayaputa, eucalyptus, peppermint (essential oils work with a characteristic odor and a cooling or warming effect).

important : in solving the problem of hair loss, there are 2 mandatory rules methodical and time course lasts from 4 weeks to 3 months with a frequency of use of 1-2 times a day to 2 times a week.

And now we'll get to do problems associated with the scalp - dandruff.For a deeper understanding of the problem, and the main thing - understanding how to solve it we need to understand the structure of the skin and causes of dandruff:

skin or derma (dermis)

accepted that the skin - the mostthe largest organ of the human body mass, area and volume.The weight of the skin is about 6% of the total weight of a person (although in this case, is not considered a layer of subcutaneous fat, which is quite developed in varying degrees for each person).The area of ​​the skin of an adult reaches about 1.5 to 2.3 meters.

are 3 layer of skin : the epidermis, the dermis (the dermis) and subcutaneous fat (hypodermis subcutaneous tissue = = panniculus adiposus).

in perspective, talk about dandruff, we do not really important to the structure and role of the hypodermis, the dermis, and we'll talk about only in part, but we'll talk about the epidermis in detail, since it is responsible for the structural condition of the skin.

Fig.The skin and its underlying structures

Derma or own skin, is a fairly dense connective tissue, which is support for the skin appendages (including hair), as well as blood vessels and nerves.The fibrous structure of the layer composed of collagen and elastin fibers.

usually allocate two layers :

1. papillary layer (adjacent to the epidermis) which are numerous growths, containing the capillaries and nerve endings.