Scientists involved in the study of social and economic development of nations, agreed that it goes in waves (in the theory of long waves of Kondratyev), the growth rate is caused by the influence of a variety of factors (cultural, political, social and other), and the driving force of development isthe degree of information and technological progress.According to some sources, the STR (scientific and technological revolution) occurs in cycles, while cycles last about fifty years.
theory of technological structures
There are five cycles.In the first wave (from 1785 to 1835) was formed technological order, which was based on new developments in the textile industry, the use of water power.The second cycle (1830 to 1890) is associated with the development of the railway industry and transport, mechanical production using steam engines.In the third wave emerged technological system based on the use of electricity.During this period (1880 to 1940) pointed out the development of the electrical industry a
The 4th wave of technological structure was formed, which was based on the subsequent development of energy with oil, oil, communications, gas, weapons, aircraft, tractors and others.In the period from 1930 to 1990, it noted widespread computers and software, radar.Began to use the atom - in the military and then peaceful purposes.Began appearing transnational and multinational companies engaged in direct investment in the markets in different countries.For the fifth wave is characterized by an emphasis on achievements in the field of computer science, microelectronics, genetic engineering, biotechnology, satellite communications, and various types of energy.From fragmentation firms move to the formation of a unified network of large and small companies, the interaction between which is set by the Internet.This period (1985 to 2035) is characterized by planning, quality control, organization of deliveries in accordance with the principle of "on time".It should be noted that the duration of the individual waves slightly more than fifty years.This is due to the coincidence of the decay time of the outgoing lifestyle with a new period of progression.Acceleration NTP will contribute in the future, reduce the length of the waves.
fifth wave.Features and advantages
concept of technological system now includes several components.The main elements are considered to be the core, the key factor.As an advocate core electronics, software, computers, telecommunications, and other achievements of modern science.A key factor considered microelectronic components.Compared to the previous (fourth) fifth technological structure based on the individualization of consumption and production, the expansion of product diversity, overcoming environmental constraints due to the automation of production and so on.