To combat aerial targets meant missile systems of different types.A huge variety of weapons primarily classified according to the launch site and the target location.For example: "surface to air" - land-based missiles (the first word) for the destruction of objects in the airspace of (the second word).This type of ammunition is most often referred to as the zenith, that is to shoot at the zenith - up.Significant speed missiles "ground-to-air", more than four times the speed of sound, can effectively fight not only with aircraft and ballistic missiles and cruise missiles hitting highly maneuverable.
Aircraft Armament Armament
modern combat aircraft is an integrated complex of several high-tech systems, which conventionally consists of a control system and immediately suspended and built weapons.Missiles are designed to run with the aeronautical mobile platforms and destroy air aircraft, in accordance with the national system are classified as missiles "air-air" (B-B).In the West, for this class of am
In the distance at which the object is destroyed in air missiles "air-air" are divided into several classes.Aircraft ammunition designed for use on three types of combat distances:
- To destroy aircraft in the line of sight used short-range missiles.These munitions are equipped with infrared homing devices.Accepted designation NATO - SRAAM.
- at distances up to 100 km are used medium-range missiles (MRAAM) with radar homing system.
- ordnance used at distances up to 200 km, long-range (LRAAM), have a complex guidance system, which uses different principles on the march and in the terminal phase of attack.
classifying thus for the range of a principle, the developers believe that at given distances are guaranteed to be able to rocket hit the target.In the language of specialists is called effective distance shooting.
The head of the rocket placed instrumentation, allowing autonomous, there are unattended, induce projectile at the target and hit it.Automatic from the surrounding physical fields is able to define the purpose, the parameters of its motion, the movement of the rocket itself and form a team for the control system, if necessary maneuver.Homing missiles "air-air" using various types of radiation target: optical, acoustic, infrared, radio.By location of the radiation source, the guidance systems are:
- passive - use the aim of radiated signals.
- for semi-active head needs reflected from the target signal emitted by the aircraft carrier.
- active themselves illuminate the purpose for which the transmitters are supplied with regular signals.
striking elements and detonators
in the air, especially at high altitudes, explosive action explosive ineffective.Aviation missiles "air-air" armed with a warhead high explosive action.Due to the high speed of movement as a goal, and of the missile warhead to apply stricter requirements for the formation of lethal sphere.Necessary results can be achieved by applying a system of predetermined cleavage into fragments or ready submunitions (balls, rods).Most products used option, which forms the radial field of cylindrical warhead fragments, fragmentation shirt.In the expansion of submunitions form a cone with a truncated apex with the direction of movement, passing rocket.
planned separation into amazing pieces of hardening is achieved by spot laser or high-frequency currents, the application of cuts or "mask" of an inert material.Fragmentation submunitions equipped with missile warheads melee.The medium-range missile systems used combat unit formed from the rods.Submunitions arranged obliquely around the explosive material and are welded together alternately upper and lower ends.In disclosing the rods form a closed ring of great destructive power.Promising developments are under way for the formation of the management and direction of the fragmentation of the field of action.
undermining warhead carried out at an optimum distance radar fuze equipped with one or two antennas.Modern missiles "air-air" are equipped with a laser system continuously monitors the distance to the target.All missile has inertial detonator in the event of a direct hit on target.
Guarding the air spaces
for our country, with its huge distances and under-developed ground infrastructure on the eastern and northern areas, the key element of defense missiles are "air-air".Russia, having made in recent years, a technological breakthrough, has a range of high-performance ammunition.Domestic missiles are intended not only to equip existing aircraft, but also promising manned and unmanned aircraft systems, put into service is expected in the near future.Modern Russian aircraft equipped with certain types of missiles.On them will be discussed further.
guided missile R-73 short-range
product accepted into service in 1983, NATO classification AA-11 "Archer".Designed to destroy actively maneuvering manned and unmanned targets at a maximum speed of 2500 km / h during the day and night in all weather conditions in the front and rear hemispheres.For shooting at pursuing the objectives of the reverse mode is start.The engine with variable thrust vectoring and other know-how allowed to surpass all existing world analogues maneuverability.You can use against unguided balloons, helicopters and cruise missiles.The rocket is part of the regular set of weapons MiG-29 and Su-27, the latest versions, as well as tactical bombers, Su-34 and Su-25.Available in two versions modifications RMD RMD-1 and-2.It can be used to deal with cruise missiles.The rocket is exported.Ammunition has the following characteristics:
- Weight - 110 kg.
- length - 2,9 m. Weight
- rod warhead 8 kg.
- launch range - 40 km (RMD 2).
passing maneuver battlefield missile RVV-MD
newest munition has all-aspect infrared guidance.Application Aerogasdynamic maneuvering system allows to destroy targets from any direction.It is expected that this model will arm all types of fighter aircraft and helicopters.RVV-MD and missile "air-surface" X-38 form the basis of the combat power of the fifth generation fighter.
- Starting weight of not more than 106 kg.
- Missile length - 2.92 m.
- Warhead weight rod with striking elements - 8 kg.
- distance hit targets up to 40 km.
Aviation missiles "air-air" P-27
guided munitions weapons created for the fourth-generation fighter.According to NATO classification AA-10 "Alamo".Specific munition is designed to destroy enemy aircraft maneuvering in close combat and at medium ranges with a maximum target speed to 3500 km / h.Apply a new concept of management and solid-propellant motor.Some versions use accelerators.Speed missiles "air-air" P-27 in four and a half times the speed of sound.Characteristics according to the following modifications:
- mass of various samples ranged from 250 to 350 kg.
- maximum length of 3.7 to 4.9 m.
- Warhead weight rod type - 39 kg.
- Range destruction facilities from 50 to 110 km.
aircraft missiles R-77 medium-range
Designed for a fifth-generation fighter MiG - 1.42, and did not follow in the series.Western name AA-12 "Adder".Adopting in 1994.Equipped with a powerful engine and the most advanced radar and infrared guidance complexes.It is intended for the destruction of moving and static objects of all types of aircraft, including cruise missiles flying with terrain following, against land and sea surface heights in all ranges.The range of modifications to the solid boosters up to 160 km.
- Weight - 700 kg.
- Product Length - 3.5 m.
- Weight rod warhead with multikumulyativnymi elements - 22 kg.
- maximum range of destruction of objects - 100 km.
On the basis of this modification of ammunition created "land-to-air."Land-based missiles features a large diameter motor.
homing missiles RVV-SD medium-range
newest pattern of domestic aircraft weapons designed to destroy all kinds of purposes, including cruise missiles at altitudes up to 25 km radar in heavy enemy resistance.Apply active complex using inertial guidance with radio correction.Detonation device uses a laser proximity sensor.
- Starting weight up to 190 kg.
- Length - 3.7 m.
- type warhead - multikumulyativnaya rod, weight - 22.5 kg.
- start distance up to 110 km.
This variant missiles designed to equip fighter ++, the fourth generation and is designed to deal with all existing types of aircraft, including cruise missiles.Ammunition can be used at any time of the day over the land and sea areas in the coastal zone.Developers accommodate foreign aircraft types.As a non-contact laser applied detonator fuse.For maneuvering applied electric grid handlebars - a technical device unique in the world has not.
- maximum launch weight - 180 kg.
- Maximum length - 3,6 m.
- Warhead multikumulyativnaya rod, weight - 22.5 kg.
- shooting distance of 80 km.
guided missile R-33 long-range
intended for weapons interceptors territorial air defense with poor terrestrial infrastructure.The NATO directories designated as AA-9 "Amos".Together with the MiG-31-33 was put into service in the early 80s and was one of the elements of a multi-interception system "Barrier".The system allows the simultaneous use of all the ammunition unit of 4 aircraft.This aircraft radar equipment and semi-active homing missiles at the same time provide an opportunity to hit four objects four missiles.R-33 is designed to destroy low-flying aircraft and cruise missiles in all weather conditions, on the background of the earth in all ranges of altitude and speed, and has the following technical data:
- Weight - 490 kg.
- Length - 4.15 m.
- mass of high-explosive fragmentation warhead of 47 kg.
- launch range - 120 km, with the additional goal of highlighting - up to 300 km.
"long arm" R-37
On the basis of R-33 for the weapons of modern interception on the basis of MiG-31BM developed long-range missile R-37.Some sources referred to as RVV-BD, and K-37.According to NATO classification AA-13 "Arrow".Tests last sample completed in 2012.When creating this new dual-mode engine is used for solid fuel and the latest equipment control and guidance.During the test, it hits the target at a record distance of 307 km.
- launch weight of various modifications from 510 to 600 kg.
- Missile length - 4,2 m.
- Warhead - high-explosive, weight - 60 kg.
- range missiles "air-air" P-73 - 300 km, in the export performance - 200 km.
Excellence enough for us
Admission to the Russian army of high-tech products in recent years, significantly ahead of the Western powers.Developed guided missiles "Air-air" will be equipped with even more powerful on-board computing systems and high-speed signal processors.The new generation of rockets will be able to not only track a target in a strong radar and infrared countermeasures, but also to the hidden object support attacked the air.