man during the life encounter with a variety of medical services.This can be a medical specialist consultation, study any biomaterials examination of internal organs, taking a variety of medications.Urinalysis pass absolutely all people, it is prescribed to all people - from babies to senior citizens.It is the most common and at the same time informative method of urine.
Urinalysis: what kind of research?
data analysis are indicative of the kidneys, so at the slightest suspicion of their dysfunction doctors prescribe this study.Additionally, the analysis may indicate to other pathological processes in the body.This method can detect the malfunction of defining general properties of urine and urinary sediment microscopy.The main parameters on which the doctor makes conclusions about the state of the patient, the following:
- colored urine;
- its transparency;
- density of urine;
- presence of protein;
- indicators of glucose;
- a patient's hemoglobin;
- ketone bodies;
- presence of salts in the urine;
- number of red blood cells;
- which have bacteria in the urine;
This study for patients with kidney disease often is assigned to monitor the dynamics of changes in the work of the excretory system and the effectiveness of the medication.A healthy person should ideally take this analysis 1-2 times a year for the early detection of pathologies.
What are the rules for collecting the analysis?
study should be carried out with the utmost precision.It is necessary to ensure the collection of urine from the beginning to the final results.Before collecting urine hygiene is necessary to the relevant authorities.It is necessary to draw attention to the fact that the analysis is not suitable for a variety of food containers or jars.To collect biological material requires a special container used only for these purposes.You can purchase it at any pharmacy.
evening before delivery of the analysis should be to limit the use of products that can color the urine: beets, carrots and others.In addition, it is necessary to trace the eve of using different medicines, as they may distort the test results.During menstruation results can also be untrue, so you need to wait until the end of the period.
evening before the analysis can not drink alcoholic beverages.The content of trace elements in urine may change significantly.
What can be revealed by this analysis?
Urinalysis appointed to determine the condition of the body when some suspected pathology.This analysis is prescribed in case of diseases of the urinary system, to determine the dynamics of the disease and the control over it.Analysis helps in time to prevent possible complications, and also shows the effectiveness of the treatment.This study is also often used in surveys of people passing professional examinations.
urine urine - a relative ratio of the density of the two materials, one of which is considered as a reference.In this case, the sample is considered to distilled water.The density of the urine is usually not constant.Reason - density changes per day, it is explained unevenness O metabolic products are dissolved in urine.
When filtering the blood, kidneys constitute the primary urine, most of which is subject to reabsorption and returned to the bloodstream.Based on the process described, the kidneys are doing a secondary concentrate urine.The above process is called concentration function of the kidney.If there is a violation of the latter, this will reduce the relative density of urine.Impaired function of the concentration may be diabetes insipidus, some embodiments of chronic nephritis and other diseases.If
appears in urine protein, sugar, leukocytes, erythrocytes and the like - it increases the density of the urine.The relative density of the urine and, more precisely, its average value is dependent on the age of the person.Also, depending on the age of the concentration function of kidneys.Generally speaking, these two concepts are closely related.
Physiology occurrence density urine
density of urine, and, more precisely, the process of its occurrence, consists of three stages.This filtration, reabsorption and tubular secretion.
first stage - filtration - takes place in the Malpighian body nephron.It is possible because of the high hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries of the glomeruli, which is created by the fact that the diameter of the afferent arterioles more than efferent.
The second stage is called reabsorption or, in other words, the suction in the opposite direction.It is carried out in the flat and twisted tubules of the nephron, which, strictly speaking, and enters the primary urine.
final, third stage of urine formation - tubular secretion.The cells of the renal tubules, together with special enzymes carry out active transport of the blood capillaries into the lumen of the tubules of toxic products of metabolism: urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, and others.
Norm relative density of urine
Relative density of urine normally has a wide range.And the process of its formation will be determined by normally functioning kidneys.About many experts say the relative density of urine.The rate of this index will fluctuate during the day many times.This is due to the fact that from time to time a person takes a variety of food, drinking water and lose fluid through sweating, breathing and other functions.In different conditions the kidneys excrete urine with the relative density: 1,001 - 1,040.It is believed, is the density of the urine is normal.If a healthy adult is drinking enough water, the relative density of urine, the rate mentioned above, in the morning may have the following figures: 1,015 - 1,020.Morning urine can be very intensive, since no liquid enters the night to the body.
density of urine is normal when its color is straw-yellow, transparent, and has blurred the smell.Her reaction should range from 4 to 7.
baruria What is dangerous?
If a person has an increased density of urine, it indicates that there are certain pathological processes in the body that a word called "baruria."Such a disease will occur increase of edema, in particular, acute glomerulonephritis or insufficient blood circulation in the kidney.If there were huge extrarenal fluid losses.These include diarrhea, vomiting, a large blood loss, burns over a large area, swelling, abdominal trauma, intestinal obstruction.About baruria will witness the emergence of a large number of urine glucose, protein drugs and their metabolites.The cause of this disease is becoming more morning sickness during pregnancy.If you pass a urine test, which share was high (more than 1030), this result would indicate baruria.These results need to be sure to discuss with a physician.
great danger to human life, the high density of urine can not be held.But it is of two kinds:
- kidney disease, such as nephrotic syndrome.
- absence of primary renal disease (glycosuria, multiple myeloma, hypovolemic states in which increases water reabsorption in the tubules in compensation and therefore begins concentrating urine).
What is testified gipostenuriya?
Gipostenuriya - a disease baruria opposite.It is characterized by a reduced density of urine.The reason becomes acute renal tubular damage, diabetes insipidus, permanent kidney failure or malignant hypertension.
Gipostenuriya indicates that the violation occurred concentrating ability of the kidneys.This, in turn, indicates renal insufficiency.And if you have found this disease, it is advisable to apply immediately to the doctor, nephrologist, who will assign you a timely and necessary treatment.
Standards density urine of children
As mentioned in the article above, the rate of urine density is different for each age.Urine is very different from adult children.It can vary in many ways, but the important thing is it different - it is normal.Relative density of urine in a child must meet the following standards:
- from baby-day rate is from 1,008 to 1,018;
- if the baby about six months for him to be the norm 1,002-1,004;
- aged from six months to a year is normal relative density of urine - is the range of 1,006 to 1,010;
- between the ages of three and five-density limits urine will range from 1,010 to 1,020;
- for children, which is about 7-8 years, the norm is 1,008-1,022;
- and those who are between 10 and 12 years, the density of urine must comply with 1,011-1,025.
Sometimes parents are very difficult to collect urine from your child, especially if it is very small.But in order to determine the density of the urine to the laboratory where the analysis is carried out such, it is necessary to deliver at least 50 ml.