The structure of the atomic nucleus and the charge

fact that all items are made up of elementary particles, scientists have assumed even ancient Greece.But neither prove it or disprove in those days there was no way.Yes, and on the properties of atoms in ancient times could only guess, based on their observations of the various substances.

Prove that all matter consists of elementary particles, it was only in the 19th century and then indirectly.At the same time, physicists and chemists around the world have tried to create a unified theory of elementary particles, describing their structure and explains the various properties, such as the nuclear charge.

study of molecules, atoms and their structures were devoted to the works of many scientists.Physics gradually shifted to the study of the microcosm - the elementary particles and their interaction properties.Scientists became interested in what constitutes the nucleus, hypotheses and try to prove them, at least indirectly.

As a result, as the basic theory was adopted by the planetary model of ato

mic structure proposed by Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr.According to this theory, any charge on the nucleus of the atom is positive, while on its orbit rotates negatively charged electrons, eventually making atom is electrically neutral.Over time, this theory has been repeatedly confirmed by all sorts of experiments, starting with the experience of one of its co-authors.

modern nuclear physics theory considers the Rutherford-Bohr's fundamental, all studies of atoms and their elements are based on it.On the other hand most of the hypotheses that have emerged over the past 150 years, virtually never been confirmed.It turns out that nuclear physics for the most part is a theoretical view of the ultra-small size of the studied objects.

Of course, in today's world to determine the charge of the nucleus of aluminum, for example (or any other element) is much easier than in the 19th century and even more so - in ancient Greece.But making new discoveries in the field, scientists sometimes come to surprising conclusions.Trying to find a solution to one problem, elementary particle physics is facing new challenges and paradoxes.

Initially Rutherford theory suggests that the chemical properties of a substance depend on what the charge of the nucleus of its atom and as a result, the number of electrons revolving in his orbit.Modern chemistry and physics to fully support this version.Despite the fact that the study of the structure of molecules initially repelled from the simplest model - the hydrogen atom, the nucleus charge is equal to 1, the theory is fully applicable to all elements of the periodic table, including rare earth metals and radioactive substances produced by artificial means at the end of the last millennium.

Curiously, long before research Rutherford English chemist, a doctor by training, William Prout noted that the proportion of multiple different materials this indicator hydrogen.He then suggested that all other elements are simply made up of hydrogen, at some basic level.What, for example, a particle of nitrogen - a minimum of 14 particles, oxygen - 16 and so on. D. If we consider this theory worldwide with a modern twist, in general, it is true.