creation of the first underwater vessel in the Russian Empire can be attributed back to 1921.Then, by decree of Peter I Russian carpenter Yefim Nikonov I was built the first submarine, who knew Russian history.Russian submarine fleet, the creation of which was planned for the next centuries, created mostly on paper, but there were exceptions.So, from 1879 to 1881 in Russia it was produced 50 submarines designed by the Polish-Russian engineer SK Drzewiecki, which, however, operated solely by muscular power.The history of the Russian submarine fleet as part of the Navy of the country starting from 1906.It was then that the Emperor Nicholas II signed a decree on its establishment.At that time, the Russian Empire, there were 10 submarines.
At the turn of XIX-XX centuries.in the leadership of the Russian Empire began to clearly understand the need to create its own military submarine.The need for this was caused by the successful development of such a shipbuilding industry in Europe and
decisive factor in the management of shipbuilding, was the failure of the deal to supply US combat submarines in Russia.After that decision was made to domestic production of the Russian submarine fleet.
first combat underwater vessel is powered by a gasoline engine, it was launched in 1904.This ship was the destroyer "Dolphin", also called the destroyer № 133. «Dolphin" had an advantage over their foreign counterparts.He had tonnage 113/135 t, developed a speed of 9 knots on the surface and to 4.5 units in the water.When you are under water ship moved by an electric motor and to raid could range up to 28 miles.
However, it was in 1906, with the signing of the emperor special decree on the establishment of a special class of ships - submarines and decided to count their history.The shipbuilding industry of the country in subsequent years developed very rapidly.Already by 1917, the Russian Navy submarine fleet consisted of 73 underwater vessel.
development of the submarine fleet in the USSR
years of revolution and civil war forced the entire shipbuilding industry of the country virtually stagnate for many years.Only in 1926, it adopted a plan aimed at is to revive the once mighty Russian submarine fleet.It is from this time begins the restoration of old models, as well as creating new ones.So, first of all provided for a submarine-type "Decembrist".Six of these boats was released in the coming years.They replaced the old "Leopard" and possessed at the time characteristics does not yield performance of foreign models.Thus, the Soviet submarine could reach speeds up to 14 knots and have a cruising range of up to three and a half thousand miles.In addition, they had six torpedo tubes and can accommodate up to 53 people.Not the least factor in the successful development of shipbuilding in the country and was appointed to head the design department of the talented engineer BM Malinin.
It is worth noting that the Soviet Union has been active cooperation in the field of shipbuilding with Germany.So, to equip submarines "Decembrists" were delivered from Germany diesels.Furthermore, German experts provided technical assistance in the establishment of submarines type C. They have high combat characteristics and actively implemented in the Soviet Navy.In addition to the large displacement - to 1073 tonnes - the submarine P could reach speeds of up to 19.5 nodes and perform a range of swimming up to 8200 miles.They also had six torpedo settings.
particular achievement of the domestic shipbuilding at this time is the design and construction of submarines type C. It has an impressive arsenal, consisting of ten torpedo tubes and most powerful radio station.In addition, there was a submarine K-type automatic remote control system of descent and ascent.It could reach a speed of up to 21 knots and the range of its voyage amazed even experienced divers - up to 14,040 miles.
development of the shipbuilding industry in the postwar period is characterized by a large jump in the technical equipment of submarines, a significant improvement in their performance.Submarines of the post-war production had a significant rate, increasing the depth of immersion, a large number of torpedo tubes.In addition, the increased tonnage of submarines and duration of the autonomous navigation.
However, a major problem was the diesel-electric boats device.In other words, the designers had to build a single engine for both surface ship and underwater.
Nevertheless, in this period began to develop widely oceanic submarine.They, along with the sea were two types of existing submarine vessels.Soviet submarines were able to be provided at any point in the world's oceans and to conduct intelligence activities there.
however, was still not solved the problem with the ability to maneuver the boat at high speeds, and the need of frequent surfacing to recharge the battery and regulate air supply.Despite this, after the war, the Soviet Union had a special advantage over the other powers, including those of the United States, the quality and amount of generated underwater vessels.Thus, the superiority was achieved in such important characteristics as speed, immersion depth, professionalism and perseverance of the crew.
the second half of the 50s.the country begins a new stage of development of the underwater shipbuilding.Now the main goal of the shipbuilding industry is the creation and development of ocean-going nuclear missile submarines.These boats have been, anywhere in the world ocean, cause nuclear missile attack on the strategically important position of the enemy.They also are equipped with a torpedo defense.
Another type of submarine is a multipurpose vessel that had been created in order to produce intelligence and patrol activities and deal with nuclear submarine, to carry out the destruction of enemy ships and transport vessels.
Creating a nuclear submarine in 1958 opened a new milestone in the development of submarine shipbuilding.Thanks for Nuclear Shipbuilding has radically solved the problem concerning the impossibility of underwater vessel under water a lot of time.In addition, the development of nuclear submarines have allowed significantly increase the speed of their own progress as an over the water and under water.
Replacement motive power boat has been brewing for a long time.Submarines were unable to carry out many scuba diving because of the weak capacity of electric motors, despite the fact that they are constantly improved.Gasoline engines were not the most effective in their work.Besides, the need for frequent ascents was caused also a constant need for replenishment of air.
first nuclear-powered vessel, created by the Soviet Union in 1958, was the K3 "Leninsky Komsomol".Bookmark vessel was produced in 1955.It had a large number of defects.Many of the components of its construction were made especially for her.So, for her unused standard for submarine hull, but it was designed so that would maximize its shipping characteristics.With this in mind, as well as, of course, the nuclear reactor, the boat reached on tests speed of 28 knots.Moreover, this result was not the best possible, because the resources have been used boats are not at full capacity.I missed her, as has been noted, and shortcomings, and ill-conceived features.So, the submarine had no anchors, replacement of diesel generators and opportunities to defend themselves.And moreover, it has been limited in maneuvering.
However, it should be noted that the specially created for her models allowed to train future crew members before its publication and to make them professionals, allowing nuclear submarine was able to immediately after creation to perform its tasks.Russian nuclear submarine fleet has allowed it to keep the world's leading position in the USSR and defend its independence in the 90th.
industry development in 70-90-ies.
In the late 60's - early 70-ies.began to develop a second-generation submarines.They offer high-speed, improved combat characteristics.Second-generation submarines have been equipped with an electrochemical air ventilation system instead of outdated hazardous chemicals.They also have an improved electronic equipment.
the period from 1967 to 1992 at three plants have been built 48 nuclear submarines.From 1973 to 1982, the Soviet Union was produced 18 diesel-electric submarines, having sound-absorbing rubber-coated housing.This innovation significantly increase their reticence.In addition, for greater efficiency they have been set by the standards of modern diesel engines of the time.
Since the beginning of the 80s of last century began to design and develop a third-generation submarines.Distinctive and their main features are more sophisticated weaponry and significantly increased the tonnage of the vessel.In addition, work was done to improve and stealth submarines, and to improve their means of detecting enemy.The speed of these boats could be up to 35 knots.And improved conditions of detention of the crew.Also submarines were equipped with rescue chambers, which allowed in case of emergency to carry out a full evacuation of the crew of the boat, located in a submerged condition.
It is worth noting submarine Project 941 "Akula", which are the largest vessels in the underwater world.Production began in 1981, and by the early '90s their number was 6 pieces.The basis of their weapons were the 20 largest of its kind in the solid-fuel missiles.In addition, these submarines were equipped with a durable multi-level housing.
submarines of the fourth generation, developed since the late 70-ies., In 90th.not well developed due to the collapse of the USSR and the financial crisis of 1998. However, their design has significant advantages which were apparent in the depth of immersion (up to 400 meters) and low noise operation.
modern submarine fleet of the Russian Federation
Russian submarine fleet at present consists of 76 submarines of different types and purposes.In the area of their application as a part of the destruction of underwater targets and ships and land-based strategic defeat of the enemy.This includes diesel submarines, and nuclear multipurpose submarines, and missile strategic submarine cruisers, and submarines for special purposes.
base, which consists of Russia's submarine fleet, make boats that were built during the Soviet era.However, it should be noted that after a difficult period in the country until the early 2000s, begins to revive Russian nuclear submarine fleet.
missile cruisers of strategic purpose
significant part of military power, which is Russia's submarine fleet, up nuclear submarines 667BDRM project "Dolphin".In service, the country currently has six such vessels.All of them belong to the Northern Fleet.Also weighty threat to the enemy boats are 667BDR project "Kalmar".Unfortunately, now in service with the Russian Federation there are only three such submarines, the most recent of which was released to water in 1982.These submarines serving in the Pacific latitudes.
Russian submarine fleet in 2014 and boasts the presence in its composition, at least partially located in the reserve, nuclear submarines of Project 941 and 941UM "Shark."For example, in the Northern Fleet has a TC-208 cruiser "Dmitry Donskoy".
multipurpose nuclear submarines
The structure of the Russian submarine fleet also includes high efficiency for multi-purpose nuclear submarines.Notable by their representatives are submarine Project 971 "Pike-B."Their task is to destroy submarines, surface and ground targets.Empowering them consists of torpedoes and cruise missiles.Are these submarines in the Northern Fleet (6 pieces) and the Pacific (5 pieces).
considerable power of multi-purpose submarines of the Russian Federation make up the submarine project 949F "Antey".At the moment they are distributed between the Northern and Pacific fleets.Their number reaches 8 pieces.
To view these boats is tragically sunk in 2000 submarine K-141 "Kursk".It was the biggest tragedy of the submarine fleet, which knows the newest Russian history.Russian submarine fleet, fortunately, at the present stage is a much more robust state than in the early 2000s.This ensures that the errors and tragedies of the past will not be repeated.
Northern Fleet, among other things, has the submarines Project 945 "Barracuda" and 945F "Condor", complementary to the military power that is Russia's navy.2014 saw the launching of modern K-560 "Severodvinsk".This boat Project 885 "Ash" was the latest achievement of Russian shipbuilding.According to plans of the country's leadership in 2020 these boats is planned to produce 8 pieces.
largest number of views diesel-electric submarines of Project 877 submarines are "Halibut".They are in service with the Northern, Pacific and Black Sea fleets.There are several varieties of this project.It is also planned to fill the Black Sea Fleet submarines Project 636.3 - B-261 "Novorossiysk" consists of 5 pieces.
previously existed and significant plans for the introduction of the combat system project 677 submarines "Lada".However, tests showed large gaps in the design of the submarine, so that specialists had to make significant changes.
Other submarine vessels
Submarine Badge United States and Russia, as we know, is a compound of the most powerful submarines in the world.However, in both countries, much attention is paid to the design and creation of a special underwater equipment.Thus, the new Russian submarine fleet has rescue submersibles Project 1855 "prize."It is known that only the Northern fleet includes ten submersibles different directions, which are treated as rescue equipment and research.
The most famous of these devices can be noted boat AC-12 "Losharik" able to dive to a considerable depth of up to several kilometers.So, this device in 2012 performed research in the Arctic at a depth of 2 kilometers.
Prospects for development of the industry
Despite the decline of the country in the '90s, most strongly affecting underwater shipbuilding, we can say that the beginning of the 2000s.The situation began to change gradually.In addition, there is the popularization of the submarine fleet, celebrate memorable dates.So, in 2006, turned 100 years old Russian submarine fleet, after which in many cities held celebrations and Ufa opened a monument to submariners.In addition, the country is marked as the Day of Russian Submarine Forces March 19.The history of the Russian Navy is promoted and becomes public.Profession diver attracts many students.
However, development of the industry as a whole in the first place should be based on the design and construction of new types of submarines.Thus, by 2020 it is planned to create up to several tens of new submarines.It is planned to design an updated version of Project 677 "Lada" with the use of modern power plant.Thus is a significant step in the development of non-nuclear submarine shipbuilding.
It is worth noting that the legacy of the Soviet Union in the form of old submarines are gradually written off and replaced by newer models.Thus, the museum submarine Russian submarine was converted B-396 project CDB ME "Rubin".It was part of the Russian Northern Fleet and served until 2000.