submarine - it is a separate class of ships that are able to dive to great depths and for a long time under water.Today, submarines are the main tactical weapon of the Navy of any state.Their main advantage - stealth.This makes submarines indispensable in a state of war.
the first time to the question of what the submarine, gave a practical answer to Leonardo da Vinci.He described its military and tactical advantages and a long time working on the layout of the device, but eventually burned all of its models, fearing for irreversible consequences.
In 1578 the English scientist William Bourne in his report outlined a submarine, which was seen by him in the depths of the Black Sea.Described submarine - it is nothing like the first submarine made in Greenland leather and sealskin.The vessel possessed ballast tanks, and acted as navigator chimney.Such a submarine could not for a long time under water, but already showed amazing results.
official project to create submarines was made
American fleet could not stand aside.In 1850 a project was launched under the leadership of L. Hunley.The boat was controlled from a separate compartment.As an engine to use a large screw that spun seven sailors.Observation passed through small protrusions in the housing.In 1864, the first child of the Hunley sank the enemy ship.Subsequently, similar successes could boast of Russia and France.
During World submarines are equipped with diesel and electric motors.In designing a new generation of submarines starring Russian engineers.During the war in the fighting involved 600 deep-sea vessels, which eventually sank about 200 ships and destroyers.
History: A New Era
By the beginning of World War II most submarines were on the balance sheet of the USSR (211 units).In second place was the Italian fleet - 115 submarines.Next is the United States, France, Britain, Japan, Germany, and only then with the 57 deepwater vessel.It is worth noting that a major combat unit of the Navy during the war, it was considered a submarine.This proves the fact that the Soviet Union predominated on the sea surface and below until the end of World War II.The culprit was the submarine that sank a total of more than 400 enemy korabley.V while the submarine could dive up to 150 meters, while under water for several hours.The average speed was about 6 knots.The revolution in underwater engineering made famous scientist Walter.He designed the streamlined body and the engine running on hydrogen peroxide.This enabled the submarines to overcome the speed barrier of 25 knots.
modern submarine - a deep craft using nuclear installations to obtain the necessary energy.Also, sources of supply are the batteries of submarines, diesel engines, Stirling engines and other fuel cells.At the moment, these are rich in fleet combat units in 33 countries.
Back in the 1990s, armed with NATO consisted 217 vessels, including the SSBN and SSN.At that time, Russia was on the balance of just under 100 units.In 2004, the Russian Federation in Italy ordered the creation of small non-nuclear submarine type.The project was called S1000.Nevertheless, in 2014 it has been frozen by mutual soglasiyu.Segodnya one of the fastest and most versatile submarines are considered to be hydrogen.This deep-class vessel U-212, which only recently began to be produced in Germany.These boats operate on the basis of hydrogen, thereby achieving the maximum noiseless movement.
submarines can be divided into groups with respect to the categories:
1. According to the type of energy source: nuclear, diesel, steam and gas, biofuels, hydrogen.
2. In purpose: multipurpose, strategic, specialized.
3. In size: cruising, medium, small.
4. According to the type of weapons: torpedoes, ballistic, missile, mixed.
most common deep-water unit is the nuclear submarine.This type of submarines has its own classification:
1. SSBN - nuclear submarines with ballistic weapons.
2. SSGN - nuclear submarines with cruise missiles.
3. MPLATRK - multipurpose missile and torpedo submarines, the main source of energy which is a nuclear reactor.
4. DPLRK - diesel submarines with missiles and torpedoes.
Experimental types can be distinguished: a flying, winged and uninhabited river submarine.
Submarines consist of 2 buildings: lightweight and durable.The first is to give the ship improved hydrodynamic properties and a second - for protection against high pressure water.Robust housing of stainless steel is mounted, but not uncommon, and titanium alloys.On the submarine has special tanks for ballast and trim control.The immersion is carried out by means of hydroplanes.Surfacing is determined by the displacement of water with compressed air from the ballast tanks.The movement of the ship or unit Diesel nuclear installation.Small submarines operate on batteries and electricity.To recharge using special diesel generators.The motor used propellers.
The purpose submarines is to carry out specific tasks:
- the destruction of warships,
- the elimination of multi-purpose vessels,
- strategic destruction of enemy targets.
Depending on the objectives set on a submarine appropriate types of weapons: mines, torpedoes, rockets, artillery, electronics.For the defense, many deep-sea ships used portable anti-aircraft systems.
One of the latest adopted in Fleet submarines received "Halibut".Construction of 24 units lasted about 20 years, since 1982.Today, at the disposal of Russian submarines is 18 "Halibut".Boats were built in the framework of the project 877. These deep-water ships became prototypes of the so-called "Varshavyanka."In 2004 the submarine was born a new generation of "Lada", working on elektrodizelnoy installation.The vessel is designed to destroy any enemy targets.These Russian submarine became widespread thanks to the minimum level of noise.Because of the high cost of the project was quickly folded.
main striking force of the Russian nuclear submarine fleet is "Pike-B."The project lasted for more than 20 years until 2004.Today, this type of submarines in service with the Russian Federation is 11 units."Pike-B" is able to reach speeds of 33 knots, dive to 600 meters and located in autonomous navigation up to 100 days.Capacity - 73 people.The construction of one unit cost the treasury about 785 million. Dollars.
Also in the arsenal of the fleet are such nuclear submarines in Russia, as "Shark", "dolphin", "Barracuda", "squid", "Antey" and others.
newest submarine in the Russian Navy soon be replenished with new units of the series "Warszawianka".It will be the newest submarine "Krasnodar" and "Stary Oskol".Boats will go into service in the second half of 2015.The docks are deepwater ships "Kolpino" and "The Great Novgorod", but their construction is completed only by the end of 2016. As a result, the balance of the Black Sea Fleet will be 6 units of the "Warszawianka" .Predstaviteli this series are designed to counter enemy attacks, ieprotection of naval bases, communications, coast.Submarines "Varshavyanka" refers to the type of noise.Work on elektrodizelnom engine.
length of a submarine is 74 meters, width - 10 m. Under the water the ship can reach speeds of 20 knots.Threshold dive - 300 m. The period of navigation - up to 45 days.
Missing and wreck
Until the 1940s submarines and then lost in the depths of the seas and oceans.The reasons for this were design flaws and oversights commander ended and secret enemy military action.
After World estimated the missing submarine units.Over the past 50 years, engineers have reached its peak.Since the beginning of 1950 the submarine is not considered dangerous for the life of the crew, and any contact with the enemy immediately fixed military base.That is why in recent decades, so little lost submarines.The most famous missing vessel is considered "Scorpion" (USA), the "Dakar" (Israel) and "Minerva" (France).It is noteworthy that all three wreck crashed under mysterious circumstances during the 2 weeks of 1968.The reports of all three accidents referred to an unidentified object after the contact with whom communication with the crew was lost forever.
total for the past 60 years has been officially recorded 8 sunken nuclear submarines, including six Russian and two American.The first was the ship "Thresher" (USA), on board of which there were 129 people.The accident occurred as a result of enemy attack in 1963.The entire crew was killed.
most notorious and tragic is the fate of the submarine "Kursk".In summer 2000, due to the explosion of the torpedo in the first compartment of the ship sank to the bottom of the Barents Sea.As a result, 118 people were killed.