all stages of human development related to the continuous hostility and seizure of foreign territories.The ancient city is a fortress, the garrison of which was well protected by high walls.Often capturing this strengthening meant a complete victory in the war.However, the long siege of the city was accompanied by very heavy losses on both sides.
required the creation of technical devices designed to destroy the "serious" protection.Since the time of Alexander the Great came the first mention of "ballista" - instruments capable of throwing stones at the curtain trajectory.This feature allows the device, is a kind of catapult, do damage to the enemy, hidden behind the ramparts.
At the end of the seventeenth century ballista principle was applied in the construction of mortar - gun, shot at an angle of 45 degrees.The successor of the guns and mortars began.Photo device, its types, combat skills and performance, presented in the review.It also describes the history of creation and development stages o
Mortar - artillery gun, which is designed for shooting at a large angle of elevation in order to defeat sheltered manpower and the destruction of fortified field of communications.As a kind of mortar, it is characterized by the absence of the mast and the recoil device - replacing these parts range, which is set on the ground or an armored truck.Shooting from being feathered mortar ammunition, in the shank of which is attached propellant.
first weapon that shoots a projectile, mine, firing up the steep path was used by the Russian army in the war with Japan in 1904-1905., During the defense of Port Arthur.The creators of "apparatus for shooting at close range," became an officer and engineer Leonid Leonid Gobyato.
gun became the basis of 75-mm howitzer with a reduced barrel adapted to the firing ship's mines.Subsequently, a new "miracle gun" to prove in his excellent fighting qualities, called "mortar."Firing range guns depended on changes in the angle of the trunk, as well as the amount of charge, and ranged from 50 to 400 meters.
Russian experience of mortar has been carefully studied by foreign experts.The massive use of the device received during World War 1914-1918.The army of Tsarist Russia in 1915 were delivered mortars caliber 47 and 58 mm, which had a range of shooting 400 and 520 meters, respectively.The creators of these devices was the captain of artillery EA Lichonin.
To understand how to shoot a mortar, it is necessary to consider its design.The instrument has three main components:
- trunk.An element in the form of pipes specifies the direction of flight of the projectile.Funnel equipped with a vertex part (a) intended for easy loading.The bottom of the barrel - breech with pressed into his drummer (c), which pierces the capsule shells (mines).
- baseplate.The item has articulation with the barrel.Serve as an instrument focusing when shooting, passing the recoil force to the surface (soil, chassis, and so on. D.).
- bipod.The element that supports the barrel of the weapon.In the stowed position formed by a spring SIRC (s).
principle of operation and range mortar
mortar firing mechanism provides for a striker, mounted in the lower part of the trunk.The gun charge - mine - served with a muzzle.Ammunition slides on a smooth surface, and its capsule, located in the rear, "prick" on the sting of the striker, and why is happening shot.This type is called a drummer tough, it is extremely simple in construction and can provide a high rate of fire.
Ammunition guns - mine - a teardrop body burster warheads with stabilizing fins tail.It is located fuse and the main (throwing) and additional charges for the use of which is governed by the initial velocity and range projectile.
In determining the distance at which the mortar is able to make a shot, help special tables created individually for each type of instruments.Consider a typical example of such calculations.
Table shooting.Mortar 120mm SAO 2S9
|type charge||mass of charge (d)|| |
mines (m / s)
firing range (m)
firing range (m)
|№ 1osnovnoy||120 100 1350||450|
|№ 2 core. +1 complement.||160 170 2300||800|
|№ 3 est. +2 Complement.||190 240 3300||1150|
|№ 4 est. + 3 supplement.||220 310 4200||1400|
|№ 5 axis. +4 Complement.||250 380 4950||1650|
|№ 6 axis. +5 Complement.||275 450 5750||1900|
Thus, we can conclude that the projectile range depends not only on the propellant, but also from the angle of elevation of the gun.Note that the initial velocity of the munition and the distance that it is able to overcome, also linked to the length of the barrel of the mortar.
mortars.Characteristics of guns, their goals and objectives in the fight
attaches great importance to the mobility means of fire, the possibility of their application in the forefront, the damaging effects of weapons and his ability to disguise.This meets the requirements of the mortar.Being an instrument with a hinged trajectory of fire, it provides:
- Destruction of enemy personnel, which is located in open areas of countryside as well as in the trenches, the trenches, ravines and gorges, for vertical walls and heights.
- Install smoke screens to facilitate the redeployment of its units hidden.
- coverage area in order to "blinding" enemy.
Tactical and technical parameters which has a mortar
- firing range.Defined minimum and maximum flight distance of a shell fired a weapon.For example, the maximum firing range of the Russian 420 - mm self-propelled mortar 2B1 "Oka" is 45,000 meters.
- Angles pointing the barrel.This parameter is adjusted permutation supporting bipod (bipod) tools.Angle vertical guidance mortar varies from 45 to 85 degrees, and the horizontal - 360.
- time to bring in the firing position.Characteristics that determine the speed of preparation for firing guns.For example, the domestic mortar 2B14-1 "tray" is in full readiness for 30 seconds.
- maximum rate.It specifies the number of shots that gun produces a minute.The maximum possible rate of light mortars can be about 30 rds. / Min.
- Weight ammunition.It determines the weight of the projectile, which can fire a mortar.120 - mm gun French production RT61 (F1), for example, is capable of firing 15 kilogram ammunition.
- Mass guns in firing position.It includes weight of all components (receiver tubes, the mast-bipod and baseplate) assembled.In self-propelled guns in this parameter includes the weight of the chassis.For example - a heavy mortar regular US Army M-30 in the firing position, weighs 305 kg and propelled MLRs BM-21 "Grad", manufactured in the Soviet Union, has a mass of 13,700 kg.
fighting qualities mortar
- high rate.Device features easy recharging, allowing you to fire the guns with great intensity.Rate of some types of modern mortars up to 170-190 rounds per minute.
- Multipurpose high power ammunition.Shrapnel, explosive, cassette, hot, smoke and light - these are just some of the types of projectiles that can be fired mortar.Firing range guns is adjusted by varying the power of the charge ejecting mine from the trunk.
- simple device.Ease of construction of most mortar, the possibility of dismantling and easy transportation make it possible to move the gun over rough terrain, continuously maintaining their fire department.Some models can be used for shooting from a car.
- constant combat readiness.Mortars are fast driving "workers' state, at the expense of ease of assembly.
- steep flight path of the projectile.The instrument is able to hit closed target, protected from grazing artillery and machine-gun fire.With this feature, a mortar capable of firing "on top" of their units.
briefly discuss the types of instruments, based on the Russian mortars.Ever since the Soviet Union, this kind of weapons classified as follows:
- company commander guns (caliber 55-65 mm).
- battalion (80-85 mm).
- Regimental (105-125 mm).
- Division (large-caliber and reactive).
Device barrel mortars vary as a smoothbore and rifled guns.There are two ways of charging - with muzzle and breech.Also, the degree of automation varies overcharging.There are automated tools, such as 2B9M "Cornflower" - mortar picture which is presented below.There are self-propelled mortars - mounted on a wheeled or tracked chassis.
most important step in the development of mortars was the Second World War 1939-1945.Only the industry of the USSR was issued more than 345,000 of these guns!Naturally, it is necessary to recall the famed "Katyusha" BM-13 - the first Guards MLRs.Firing range of the guns was from 4350 to 5500 m. The main characteristics of the mortars that time, standing on the arms of the participating countries of the war, are combined in this table.
|Types mortars||caliber guns (mm)|| |
Weight in firing position (kg)
|mines Weight (kg)||guns firing range (m)|
mortars Today, thanks to the rapid development of the military-industrial technologies have become a super-modern rifle range.We will not describe in detail all the advantages of artillery of the XXI century, and consider only one model.And it will see an example of how far stepped forward progress.
on military-technical exhibition MILEX-2011 held in Minsk, the Russian engineers was presented silent mortar 2B25, called "Gull".The peculiarity of this product is that it has the most secretive combat use.When fired mortar powder gases "locked" in the ammunition and gun does not emit smoke, sound or shock wave.
«Gull" hits targets at ranges of 1000-1300 m with a rate of 15 rds. / Min.Weight mortar does not exceed 15 kg and the weight of the projectile is only 1.9 kg.2B25 is designed for the operation of the special forces and has no analogues in the world.
development of navigation systems and computerized fire control made mortar in precision-guided weapons.However, it maintained its basic properties - ease and convenience, cheap ammunition, hinged trajectory shooting and no need for lengthy preparation of the "staff".Mortar is still one of the most reliable types of weapons, do not require special resources and numerous artillery calculations.