Russian opposition as a kind of generalized social movement suffers from a number of system defects.Disunity, ambiguous assessments of their situations and their changes, the difference between political platforms and objectives - this is an incomplete list of factors that shape the impact of the weakness of the forces opposing the existing government, which, however, all their leaders are characterized as "criminal" and "bloody".At the end of the first decade of the XXI century on the Russian political scene has a new decoy - Bulk.Who is it, what are the ambitions of this figure, and why he decided to lead the opposition movement?What are his goals, what he calls?Surveys conducted in Russia showed that half of the population does not even know who he is.It's time to fill this gap.
opposition constructive and destructive
In modern Russia protests have a certain social base, as well as in any other country.Ideal society has not yet managed to create a single state, unhappy everywhere, and use the a
Early Russian opposition
The history of modern Russian opposition begins in the late 80s.Most of its members are sincerely fighting against the communist regime, sitting in prison, in exile, and proudly called themselves dissidents.Even then, it was divided into "wings" - left and right, but, regardless of the orientation joyfully welcomed the coming to power of the democratic forces led by Boris Yeltsin.Not all the opposition is quite consistent with the image of the zealot popular aspirations, that's why there were first problem.In the former Soviet Union, meanwhile, it is a struggle for the soul and power.President and prime minister in post-Soviet countries were people who were trained in the United States (this biographical fact perceived by the population if it is positive).Russia is also ready for the shots, certainly friendly to the West.According to provide support, the best representatives of a set of promising democratic-liberal leaders in the United States believed Mikhail Kasyanov, Boris Nemtsov and Grigory Yavlinsky.
emergence of opposition figures like Mr. Novodvorskaya, Limonov, and even the famous chess player Kasparov as a promising political figures have not considered, their images did not match the depth of the problem.But reputable and experienced leaders of the Yeltsin era, proven and loyal to the West, too, did not fit.Against them, he spoke eloquently of the fact that the power they already had, and quite recently.Nothing good politicians and economists Yeltsin did not bring a set of people, and it has not yet been forgotten.It required a reboot.Needed a new leader who could unite the fragmented opposition forces would possess a certain charisma, high intelligence, sarcastic, ironic turn of mind and could speak beautifully, in other words, would own audience.At the same time such a person ideally should actually be deprived of the past.And such a candidate was found, his name was Alexei Navalny.Who is this, no one knew.Just author and blogger.But dashing the trouble started.
Parents Alexey Anatolyevich - ordinary people.His father - an officer-signaller, a graduate of the Kiev military school.Mother studied in Moscow (Moscow Institute of Management named after Ordzhonikidze).Born in 1976, the son of the military and the opposition often changed the future of the city and the school.Currently, parents own a small enterprise engaged in manufacturing wickerwork products.There Alexei and his younger brother, Oleg, who was born in 1984, but about it later.The wife - Julia Borisovna.Two children, Daria (2001 p.) And Zahar (2008 p.).In general, the family as a family.Alexei Navalny lives in Marino (Moscow district, not related to a particularly prestigious).Modesty adorns the policy, especially the young.
After alabinskoy school at a military town young man entered the Russian Peoples' Friendship University, which he graduated from law school in 1998.Alexei Navalny has worked in a bank, and a year before graduation showed a craving for commerce and became the founder of the society "Nesna" (hairdresser).It's not gone, the company was sold, but the search for a better life continued.The young man received a second degree from the Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation at the Faculty of Finance and Credit, becoming an expert in the exchange business and securities.Link to the study emerged again in 2010 when he managed to get six months training (grant program «Yale World Fellows») in the United States at Yale University.Recommendation beginner policy gave venerable Russian opposition E. Albats, O. Tsyvinski, Guriev and Kasparov.They know America, listened to their words.
LLC "Allekt" was registered in 1997 as an agent of the opposition Union of Right Forces.It was engaged in advertising, its activities were not very successful, despite the fact that the "law of force" payment for its services amounting to almost one hundred million rubles, of which five percent received as remuneration the deputy director of Navalny.Who considers a violation of the law or of financial discipline?Currently, LLC "Allekt" liquidated.The same fate befell the law firm "N.H. Securities ", which was co-founder of Alexei A. and his friends on studying at law school.Since 2001, the company "Euro-Asian transport system", in which creation participated Navalny, provides logistics and transportation services.The company also self-destructed.In 2009, he became a lawyer, passing the exam in the city of Kirov, and even spent two processes.In the same period there was a short-lived company "Bulk and partners."In 2012, he advanced to the responsible post of "Aeroflot" Alexander Lebedev, owner of Bank NRB.In electing protégé promised to conduct an uncompromising fight against corruption.A year later, Alexei Navalny A. left the post, apparently against his will.
big politics Beginning
By being more energy in business, Aleksei A. been politically active.The fight against corruption - a win-win deal, they can do forever, and to evaluate the effectiveness very difficult."The Committee to Protect Muscovites" in 2004 he fulfilled this difficult socially useful work.Since 2005, it added the care of youth (movement of "Yes!") And the leadership of the movement "The police and the people."Political career began in collaboration with the Governor of the Kirov region N. White (non-staff adviser) and the Fund to support its initiatives.
was then the "Yabloko" (member of the board) and the post of the head of the Moscow party organization.In 2007, Alexey Navalny A. scandal was expelled from the party for extreme nationalism.He himself explained the incident to their confrontation with Yavlinsky.
national idea - it is almost as advantageous as the fight against corruption, especially when combined with democratic slogans.In Moscow, came from time to time one or the other carefully orchestrated "Russian" march.Bulk was seen almost all of them.However, by 2013 the excessive scandal (ziguyuschie raging young people and other hooligans have created an unfavorable background) prompted policy to waive participation in public events nationalist orientation.Criticism of the "Putin regime" has become the main focus of the movement "People", which, however, was not as numerous as one would its creators.Bulk, which have already published the photo, almost all the media, trying to merge his organization "Other Russia", but was rejected.Nevertheless, the image of uncompromising fighter against corruption has prevailed in the elections of the mayor of the capital went to the opposition candidate "silver".But then suddenly there was the case of "Yves Rocher" significantly impair a heroic image.
Oleg Navalny, the brother of opposition, he worked as a specialist in automation and head of the department of internal items to the "Mail of Russia", and then decided to set up his business in 2013 and retired.That he was able to convince the representatives of the company "Yves Rocher" not to use more services of public service (and it obviously really worked not the best), and entrust their departure, obtain a private firm GPA is actually owned by his brother.Price, of course, turned out to be higher, but the reliability of ... So, at least, says Oleg Navalny.And he won the favor of foreigners.In fact, no one was going to carry letters, packets and parcels.Getting the goods to be shipped, the brothers Bulk subcontract troublesome thing other transport companies, taking the much less for services.Some time this simple scheme operated successfully, but the secret sooner or later becomes apparent.Whether deadlines were not met, or that disappeared, but the French have suspected something was wrong.Then they raised claims and rolled.In total, the brothers Bulk cheated their customers by 24 million.The matter went to court and received international publicity.Immediately began protests in connection with the harassment of the opposition in Russia.
court's verdict can not be considered too strict.In Soviet times, for this could easily be shot, and only true "ten" shone even Gorbachev's rule, when it was possible to almost everything.Oleg Navalny got a real period of 3.5 years, and his brother - the opposition and anti-corruption advocate honesty - escaped with a suspended sentence.The court apparently took into account his merits in the fight against theft.More accomplices will have to pay 4.8 million rubles fine.It should be understood in such a small change will not be found.
Reaction to the case
course, liberal society and is trying to convince the population of Russia is that it is for the fight against the regime suffered Bulk.The rally followed a rally during the consideration of the case, then the activity decreased, but zero is not reached today.The image of the victim is always cause massive empathy in our country, besides many allegations disgraced politician drew a warm response in the hearts of people.Indeed, not all right in the Russian immigration law, and other issues missing.
Who is to blame?
matter Navalny exaggerated pro-Western and liberal media called trumped-up, but participation in it deceived the foreign helper significantly undermines the position of the defense of civil liberties.
There is nothing sweeter for the leader of the Russian opposition, than the feeling of sacrifice, combined with recalcitrance.It is in this direction emote Alexei Navalny.Photo defiantly cut his electronic bracelet traveled around the Internet in early 2014 after a conditional sentence came into force and the need to house arrest disappeared.This device really take off for some reason just did not have time - and here it is, the reason for the protest.Reactions of "princes," however, was not followed.
Another reason appears on the TV screen was the murder of Boris Nemtsov.On this tragic event, many leaders responded "movement of Dissent", including K. Sobchak and A. Navalny.A meeting was planned for the next day, in fact, has become a failure.The blame for the death of opposition leader Nemtsov habitually puts Putin.
himself, he believes that the country will be able to manage much more successfully after winning the next presidential election.