Any human activity is linked to the consumption of electric energy.Therefore, the construction of large power plants (more heat), starting with the twentieth century, and has decided to solve the global problems of the lack of energy, without which no progress.The disappearance of fertile soils, shallowed rivers and lakes without fish, ruined forests, thermal pollution generated by CHP, the growing number of serious diseases.It's all up the development of energy, the most polluting industries.The future of humanity depends on the decision of two related problems, such as: the need to develop energy and pollution purposes.Air, soil, water, plants and animals are affected by consumer attitude.CHP pollution disrupts the natural functioning of all components of the biosphere components.A disaster such as Chernobyl and Fukushima - is a warning and perhaps even a cry for help.Not fulfilling environmental requirements for CHP at all stages of construction and operation, people endanger their lives and the liv
Almost three quarters of the energy required for the life giving power system.And she is today considered by ecologists most polluting industries.At the core of the industry is to obtain energy by burning combustible materials.The fuel may be coal, peat, oil shale, oil or gas.Also used the energy of the rivers.This requires the construction of reservoirs and CHP.
The shortage of clean water
bad news from the activities of enterprises CHP - air and water pollution in the first place.Every year, energy enterprises are using more than thirty billion cubic meters of clean water.In the construction of reservoirs on the rivers flooding occurs adjacent fertile land, and sometimes housing people.Dams and other hydro disturb the natural current of the river that leads to the shallowing of rivers and changes in groundwater level.The implications of these changes - waterlogging and salinization, which become unusable for agriculture.The decomposition of vegetation, flooded during the construction of reservoirs, leads to negative changes in aquatic fauna and flora.The energy obtained from the power station power turbines driven by steam from the hot water clean.Exhaust steam is cooled and continuously discharged into the water bodies.Streams of warm water form a source of thermal pollution on CHP.
scale of heat zones in rivers is measured by several tens of kilometers "scorched" in the literal and figurative senses of the river.Changes in physical properties of water in rivers and reservoirs causes a change in the chemical constituents, and then - biological processes.Suffering ecology.CHP - the cause.
problems of air pollution Air pollution
CHP - the problem is big.In terms of emissions into the atmosphere of thermal power enterprises in the leading position.It is nearly thirty percent of the total emissions of all enterprises in various industries.And it is more than six million tons of dust, harmful compounds of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, vanadium, but almost all the elements of the periodic table.Acidification of the soil by acid rain - is a consequence of this process, such as air pollution by sulfur dioxide gas CHP.The accumulation of large amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leads to an increase in air temperature on the planet, its average annual performance is called the greenhouse effect.Bad ecology CHP is the cause of congestion in the lower atmosphere aerosol chemical harmful particles and organic dust.This phenomenon is called "photochemical fog" when under light winds and strong sun radiation and the increased concentration of photo-oxidants in the air hangs over cities could.If not treated, it leads to destruction of the ozone layer.Every year the percentage of Allergy varying severity.Air pollution CHP extremely dangerous to life and health of urban residents.Especially pernicious is for the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
in the near future to increase the performance of energy industries is projected to increase in the number of solid fuel combustion.Therefore, all the more urgent is the problem of disposal of carcinogenic waste from combustion and slag storage.Who processed only eight percent of all ash waste.Deficiency of free land forces to allocate a technical area electric utilities territory adjacent to the residential building of cities, and increase the height of zolootvalnyh heaps.Air pollution CHP in this situation there is particularly acute, t. To. Zoloothodov wind erosion leads to the contamination of large areas.Businesses and agriculture is not ready for processing slag.We need research and development activities on these issues.To solve these problems is an urgent need.
In the big cities in the thermal power plants have sharp and interrelated aspects: CHP pipes and sewage CHP.The piping system is worn out and needs major repairs.Emergency pipeline threatens pollution and acidification of soil, groundwater level rise, water pollution in nearby water bodies.All this entails every year deterioration of drinking water quality.Wastewater is conducted by various methods and in several stages, it, in turn, requires energy and leads to the formation of secondary waste requiring disposal.Process Wastewater Treatment - an even more time-consuming and energy-intensive process.Industrial waste water that can not be cleaned at all, burn or pumped into deep wells.And it attracts a lot of environmental problems.
issue of environmental safety, conservation habitable environment engaged in state and public organizations.An important aspect of their work - the valuation of quality indicators, as well as monitoring their performance.Regulatory documents establish the permissible limits the impact on the environment.Assessed the physical, chemical, biological and other quality indicators.For users are limited by the nature of permissible limits extraction of natural resources, the rules of the physical (noise, vibration, ionization, etc.) The impact on the environment, waste water discharge standards, norms, emissions and other activities, taking into account the specific characteristics of each territory.
to adverse effects on the activity of TPP minimize the development of environmental protection measures should be carried out together with the planning, development and implementation of new projects of enterprises.Especially it concerns the areas adjacent to protected areas protected for which the special regulations.Violation of them leads to criminal liability.From residential developments enterprise must be separated sanitary protection zones.These zones are used for barrier and reduce the negative factors of industrial facilities.The size of such zones shall be established by national regulations, taking into account the expected negative actions after the relevant environmental impact assessment of natural objects.
Possible ways of solving energy problems
need to reduce the negative impact of energy on the environment than ever raises the question of energy saving.Primarily due to the reduction of energy intensity of industrial processes.This calls for modern development that will take into account the following points:
- energy saving in the home;
- approximation power generation facilities to consumers, reducing costs by increasing the efficiency of the fuel used at the same time reducing the risk of thermal pollution;
- improving the physical and chemical methods for the preparation of fuel to bring it to a safe and energetically favorable fuel;
- modernization of combustion modes;
- improvement and development of high-performance water treatment facilities.
Alternative energy sources
environmental and economic factors related to energy, forced to talk about the use of alternative energy sources:
- direct or indirect use of solar energy (storage of solar cells, obtaining fuel of the future - hydrogen from water, and others.);
- the use and improvement of wind turbines in areas with intense winds;
- use of energy of ocean currents, tides and tidal changes in temperature at different depths in the seas.
level of modern developments is the optimistic forecasts in the issue of energy and in terms of the economy, and in terms of ecology.The impact on the environment has become global in nature and require the same solutions.