With it, we are facing on a daily basis and not once.In it we can take as an active part and to keep neutrality.She lies in wait for us at home, on the street, at work, at the store, transport ... You still have not figured out what or whom is it?No?Then let me introduce: Her Majesty speech situation!And we will begin our acquaintance, of course, with vivid examples.
speech situation: examples
Remember the Soviet lyrical comedy Eldar Ryazanov's "Office Romance"?In one of the opening scenes hapless, diffident senior statistician Novosel friend during a party at a friend trying to "hit on" her boss, "heartless" and "callous" Kalugin-mymra, but all his attempts fail.Why is that?The causes are many, but one of them is banal simple: the participants of the dialogue was just a different vision of the question "what is a speech situation."Now, first things first.
Members speech situation in practice
Thus, any situation of speech communication primarily intended participants.They are the major and mi
Now, the relationship between the parties.This is another important item on "speech situation and its components."Speaking of which, first of all have in mind is not a relationship literally and social roles of the speaker and the addressee.In the case described the relationship between the Kalugin Novoseltsev defined as "superior-subordinate".However, even here there is no stability.Everything depends on the conditions and circumstances.In a formal setting, at work, in the office, during business meetings must be maintained emphatically and business communication style.But if the "scene" is transferred from the treasury office in the normal home environment - Samohvalova the apartment, there is a change of scenery: the music, the festive table, guests ... In short, the situation becomes informal, respectively, and the role of social change communication style.
incorrect view of the situation
But the "old" hard not to notice this, ignores the awkward attempts at courtship by fellow Novoseltseva, and in the midst of universal joy continues to maintain the tone of official business.It is not clear and the purpose of forced intercourse.Urgency and the prospect, as the main purpose of defining business communication, no means, to say nothing more.However, timid, shy, "senior statistician" - whether from the experience of fear, whether from the received cocktail - also passes the verge of what is permitted.After several attempts to charm companion causing their singing, reading poems and dances, never received due recognition, it is open in front of the guests called Lyudmila Prokofievna "heartless" and "callous."The funny side of the situation there.But it is, so to speak, speech situation, examples.What It Says?
term "speech situation»
One of the sections of linguistics is lingvopragmatika.It is a science that deals with the study of the practical use of language, ie. E. How a person uses the "word" to influence the recipient, and that which affects the characteristics of human speech and behavior in the communication process.A speech situation in this case is precisely the basic concept of linguistic pragmatics, on the basis of which conducted basic research.It consists of several components: the participants of communication, their relations, the subject of communication, internal and external communication conditions.Speech situation and its components are presented in detail on the example of us scenes from the movie, so to speak, in practice.For a better understanding of the theory can be used in the scheme proposed NI Formanovskaya and supplemented TA Ladyzhenskaya.What is the speech situation and its components can be clearly seen in the figure below.
As for the participants of the dialogue, we believe, the issues can arise: sender and the recipient - the one who speaks and the one who listens.In other words, the sender initiates the speech situation, he is an active participant in it.Maybe both speaking and writing, depending on how and in what form are spoken - written or oral (sixth item on the table "speech situation").The scheme, as you see, is quite simple.It is believed that the role of the sender often tactically advantageous, since it specifies the subject, tone and pace of communication.It "director" of the action and, therefore, he has special rights: he directs the conversation back on track, and, accordingly, may adjust its timelines.
However, as they say, everything in this world is absolutely and relatively the same time.Therefore, the role of the recipient in the dialogue - it is not always a passive position.During the conversation, the listener performs a number of operations required rechemyslitelnyh as:
- control the volume of what he reported,
- control understanding,
- definition of concepts,
- adjustment positions.
All these points are implemented with the required reactive remarks: "Thanks for the information," "Of course", "In other words, do you think ..." "If I understand you correctly ...".By the way, every speech situation, whether it's dating, greetings, congratulations, have a certain set of stable phrases and expressions - the so-called "formula of speech situation."With these clichés destination can seize the initiative and continue to act in the role of the speaker.
social nature of the relationship
impossible to deny or downplay the importance of the social role of the communicants.Imagine that a mother, just having a warm conversation with her daughter at breakfast, an hour later, the school serves as your child's teacher.Relationships change.In one case, they act as a "parent-child", another - "teacher-student".Accordingly, the speech situations, speech and their roles will be completely different.Anyone who does not understand or does not see the difference, do not control the situation, doomed to inevitable problems.
social role may be fixed and variable.The first group are those that are defined by the floor member communication, his age, family ties, and so on.To the second, alternating roles include those that define social status and social status of a communicant at the time of communication with respect to the other, "teacher - student", "Head-slave", "parent-child" and so on. D. Indicators of socialstatus is a service and social status, achievements, prosperity.Environmental conditions
communication to external conditions include the time and place of communication.To a question about whether they are important and which play a role in the communication process, you can use as an example the remarks in the play playwrights.The place, time, lighting, interior description, natural environment - all that is "outside" necessarily affect "inside" - in every word, sigh sentence.
Depending on the participation of space-time factor, canonical and noncanonical distinguish speech situations (by "Russian" even children write essays on the subject).Canonical - when the sender and recipient are in the same place, or at least see each other, share a common sight, and a time of your statement coincides with the perception of his hearers.In other words, all the participants of the speech situation are in direct interaction.As for the second option, here we see the absolute failure to comply with all the above conditions: coordinates of the "I-you-here-now" no.
motives and goals are also important element of the concept of "speech situation".Why are we talking about?What is spoken aloud or that phrase?What are the intentions of all participants to communicate?The goal - an invisible connecting thread between speaker and listener.No it - breaks the connection, and speech situation ceases to exist.What, then, can be the target to the thin thread as long as possible not disappear?The first - the desire to inform, tell, describe, give an idea about anything.Second - inducing, persuading the listener in anything with the help of evidence and arguments.The third - a suggestion, change the emotional state of the partner.Here, the course is an appeal not only to reason, but also to the feelings of the interlocutor.Used emotional levers.Fourth - the motivation to act.In this case, the desired response - immediate action.And last - maintaining reciprocal positive emotions, the desire to please myself and partner communication process itself.
Take, for example, the phrase: "I have an important business meeting."It can be used for the purpose of the refusal.Have you planned a great event, and you can not accept the invitation of friends go to the movies, "I have an important business meeting" (so I can not go with you).Other speech situation - on the anniversary of the late close friend, another purpose - an apology: "I have an important business meeting" (which I can not miss).According to the statement, and can encourage colleagues to help them get things off the ground, hence the new goal - to inspire confidence: "I have an important business meeting" (partners promise us new projects, new perspectives).As can be seen from the examples, the same sentence may sound perceived differently.Everything depends on the situation and the intentions of the speech of the speaker, conscious or unconscious.