In the fifties of the XX century there was a technological breakthrough in the global electronics industry.Semiconductors began to displace all the usual lamp, the size of the equipment is rapidly declining, and the hardware capabilities expand.In the military sphere, these processes are also reflected.Signalers received light and compact hardware, new encryption capabilities.Exploration also on alert.Soon the sky rose US "Orion", which, without violating the borders of the state, could provide NATO command large amounts of information.Our response was the Il-20M.
In the second half of the fifties a symbol of Soviet passenger aircraft IL-18 was.Of course, by that time it had already been other liners Tupolev Tu-104 and Tu-114, but built on the basis of the bombers, they do not always have a high efficiency, reliability and comfort.IL-18 is often flown First Secretary Khrushchev, he liked the plane.When the question of adequate response, not the American signals intelligence program
main rule - not to arouse suspicion
scout-illegal immigrant should be like an ordinary citizen, and reconnaissance aircraft - a passenger airliner.So we decided in the General Staff of the USSR.
Overall, the aircraft had a few differences with the base IL-18D, the latest and most advanced passenger modification feature of which was increased flight range (6,400 against 4,850 km from the previously released IL-18B).Liner the 1965 Moscow serially produced aircraft factory "Banner of Labor", here began to build in 1968 and Il-20M.For reasons of safety of the state secret color (aircraft manufacturers call it a livery) he received the usual Aeroflotovskie.On the nose it has remained the inscription "IL-18", in general, it looks no different from the civilian side, and only professionals to obtain secret access could know exactly what's inside.And there were in the cabin device that allows for the intensity and nature of the radio to judge the degree of military activity armies of foreign countries.
During the exercises or the preparation of aggression, the armed forces of any country in particular need of coherence, which provide communication troops.Ideally, the adjacent side wishes to know the entire volume of information transmitted, but also the intensity of the radio, you can pretty much understand.Inside Il-20M is a high quality military linguist and translator, constantly listening to open channels of communication.He speaks the language of a neighboring state in perfection knows dialects and slang used by members of the army potential enemy.Oddly enough, a very large part of useful information is obtained this way nemudrenyh.Chatterbox not only we find for the spy.
But not only listen, but also can spy IL-20M (scout).Photos taken with high-quality unit A-87P, many kilometers will help to draw conclusions about the military activity, and it does not need to cross the border.And, of course, zapelengovat foreign radar is also not hurt.
As already stated above, the IL-20M spy on its flight characteristics and the overall scheme of identical passenger airliner Il-18D.This all-metal monoplane with a fuselage of the "monocoque" circular cross-section.Four screw turbine engine AI-20M have a capacity of 4250 liters.from.each.The length of the fuselage - 35.9 meters, the height above the bottom of the keel - 10170 mm swing bearing surface - 17.4 m, with an area of 140 square meters.m. Take-off weight of 64 metric tons.Speed - 640-680 km / h.Ceiling - 10 thousand.
course, passenger seats in the cabin Il-20M made redundant, leaving only the seat of staff serving sophisticated electronic equipment.Seats (eight of them) are also special designed for stacking of parachutes, after all military aircraft.Since a long flight, there are recreational facilities (canteen, toilet and walk-in closet).Leave the board in the case of abnormal circumstances, the crew can, using the shaft, leading to advanced cargo (passenger version) hatch.Besides scouts electronics on the plane there, of course, and air crew of five members (2 pilots, radio operator, flight engineer and navigator).
equipment when it
reconnaissance aircraft IL-20M is equipped with complex electronic and optical means of obtaining information.It includes a station "4-Diamond", "Square-2" device intercepting VHF band "Cherry" radar "Igla-1" side-view and optical equipment.There were produced two dozen copies of the IL-20M.Photos of these aircraft are almost identical, in most cases, not even on board the usual number.Each of them has a specific packaging and is designed for a specific range of tasks, so the measures taken by stealth.
aerial camera lenses are covered by special flight to the curtain, phased array radar lies in the long (nearly 8 m) container radioprozrachny ventral gondola.Optics is headquartered in side skirts, the rear of the antenna which are also "Rhombus" responsible for detecting radar.
IL-20M can be called a veteran of heaven.For the global aviation similar phenomenon is not uncommon, but in each case we can say that for a long time flies only true masterpiece of technical ideas.Electronic equipment is aging, but it does not matter, it can be replaced and install the new.
ILYUSHIN aircraft was very successful, durable, reliable, easy to operate and economical.At present, it simply can not be replaced.Of all the possible options for the role of the electronic reconnaissance aircraft can perform only jet Tu-214, and then only after careful and serious redesign, which is a matter of far-away prospect.In the meantime, the maintenance in operational condition Ihlow concern was the War Ministry.A program of extensive modernization.
Il-20M is now painted in a conventional military aviation gray.Civil livery longer fooled no one shall bring.When the aircraft approaches the boundary, the Air Force neighboring countries usually declare alarm ...