To know firsthand that this Oprichnina

That is oprichnina, everyone knows.This is a public policy in Russia 1565-1572 years: the autocratic policies of terror, then repeats almost every turn of history (and not only in Russia).

's why it has become a household word.Oprichnina - a state within a state living on their (most often - a wolf) laws, and can be called directly oprichnik any agent of the secret police involved in the repression.The root of the word oprichnina in old - "OPRICH" - a special, besides.For example, the oprichnina (special) part of the inheritance, which receives a widow.

Oprichnina and its consequences

In the formative years of Russia (as Empire) in the bloody reign of the first Russian Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible) to afflict them with endless Livonian War, and among the enemies of the state were such "monsters" asSweden, Poland, Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate.And inside the country there was no rest: in the palace coups constantly matured, committed treachery and murder, and the people exhausted by drought,

famine, pestilence and plague.Russia tormented on all sides: the north and west groaned raids Poles and Lithuanians, Swedes ravaged suburb of Novgorod, east and south of the city burned Russian family of Khan Giray - Kazan, Astrakhan and Crimean.The authority of the king was no more than full: Boyar click (Duma and at the time was the chief administrative body) and in the military and political relations take into account only their own benefit and to the king not consulted.As is known, the power of Ivan the Terrible still took.And, too - more than full.Being one of the brightest minds of our time, brilliantly educated in many fields of knowledge, it is, above all, strengthen the state and the sovereignty of a number of reforms.For 50 years of his reign, Russia has increased its territory by 100%!He won almost all the wars.It has trade and even diplomatic relations with Britain.Only in the Baltic region has not managed to consolidate (the time has not come).However, the European states were seriously concerned about the persistence of these attempts.That is what the oprichnina.Many historians believe that it was she who determined the success of most companies of Ivan the Terrible.

But, as a result, Russia has become a police state.The country is filled with people with a bold face and a dead dog broom, strapped to the saddle that impunity robbed, tortured, killed.Outraged everywhere, forgetting the good purposes Oprichnina (primarily, it is the reunion of all the Russian land, the elimination of feudal fragmentation, pristrunenie independence boyars with their indescribable outrages).Boyar taken in hand, yes.But at what cost!The guardsmen headed by John literally ruined and tortured country.Farmers fled from the estates were tortured with the children and household gentlemen, the land was empty, after the great war.Continued long-term hunger.As a result, the law was introduced "PROTECTED years", from which gradually grew serfdom.Over time, the guardsmen have lost the fear and conscience last, lazy and forgot the principles so that another war with Khan Giray simply did not show up.This act is especially evident what the oprichnina.But since only one goal oprichnina was performed thoroughly (strengthening autocracy) - Get the full power John dealt with his oprichniki so that even repressed by the roots Tver, Torzhok, Novgorod and other cities and villages probably terrified.

Oprichnina as a tool

Oprichnina certainly would have become a central pillar of the progressive power against reactionary boyars with his greed, treachery and vile strife's sake.

But!This - a double edged sword.The second side is also not against profit and autocracy.A means of achieving the objectives hitherto same.And it is not so important the person at the head of the observed phenomenon oprichnina - This is John King, the dictator Pinochet, the Eurasian Youth Union and other major currencies.Innovation is Oprichnina or destructive, nuclear or information - and people are dying are still (at least sophisticated torture), crumbling city, go into oblivion wholesome country.Oprichnina unfortunately established on the earth more firmly than the throne of Russian tsars.And even more sorry for many parts of our planet who learned firsthand about what the oprichnina.