In recent times the media can be heard about the Human Development Index (HDI).I would like more talk in detail about this figure, and understand how it is defined the same way.
First of all the human development index - is an economic indicator that is used in the UN in order to determine the quality of life in different countries.It is important not to confuse this concept with the quality of life, it is fundamentally different definitions.The standard of living can characterize the degree of material well-being, that is, people satisfaction their wealth.In this case, the average standard of living in the country can be visibly displayed by using GDP per unit of population.While the concept of "quality of life" contains the "intangible" aspects of life.This may include life expectancy and health, the ability to spend their leisure time and rest, the cultural richness of the country and its spiritual level of development, etc.
It is logical that determine the quality of life rather difficult, be
So that's become an integral indicator of the human development index, which was developed in 1990 by two foreign economists: Mahbub ul-hacks and Indian Amartya Sen.After that, since 1993, the year the United Nations has a strict record of the development of this indicator, showing the value of the HDI for most countries of the world.Please note that the data provided by the UN, known with a delay of 2 years.
for the HDI was introduced an alternative measure - poverty index, which however, is not widely used.Perhaps the main reason for this is the dissonant name, which compromises the capitalist system of many countries.By the way, this figure is calculated as well as the index of human development.
In essence, the HDI contains three main indicators - a standard of living that can be evaluated by gross domestic product per capita, education index, ie the literacy rate and life expectancy.
education indicators include the degree of adult literacy, as well as the overall percentage of students.That is the number of literate people among the residents of the state, which is already 15 years old and can be considered an indicator of the level.Literate person can be called an individual who can read and write a simple statement related to his daily life.Usually you can find out the level of literacy in the population census, but it is carried out once every 10 years.In order to check this indicator annually conduct indirect studies in which more than trying to figure out exactly the true number of literate people.For example, conducting a survey of persons entering into a marriage, or recruits.It must be said that this method is selective and can not give an accurate and complete picture of literacy of all segments of the population.
Human Development Index can have a value from zero to one.It is determined by the formula where taken into account averages of all three indices indices mentioned above.This translation into an index value, which can be expressed as a numerical value from 0 to one, makes it possible to take into account the very different and disparate performance in one integrated record.
It should be noted that some countries are not included in the calculation of the United Nations.Small countries in Europe, such as Liechtenstein, San Marino, Monaco, Andorra do not publish their data.News in the economy of these countries suggest that the HDI is high, as 10 years ago.Some countries have not yet been included in the reports of the United Nations, these include the division of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as Macau and Taiwan, although the preliminary data, they have a very high HDI.
countries where there is war, no longer determine their development index.It is countries such as Liberia, Afghanistan, Somalia, etc.It can be assumed that this figure in these countries will be terribly low.