Livonian Order: structure, management and everyday life

Livonian Order - is a German spiritual and chivalric organization existed for centuries XIII- XVI in Livonia (today's Latvia and Estonia).It was organized in 1237 from the Order of the Sword, crushed Semigallians and Lithuanians in the Battle of Saule.Livonian Order was considered a branch of the Teutonic Knights of Livonia.It broke up in 1561, when he defeated the Livonian War, Lithuanian and Russian troops.

structure and management

Head of the Order was a master.However, he was forced to submit to more and Supreme Master of the Teutonic Order.Herman became the first head of the beam.After the master followed landmarshal - Commander.Earth Order consisted of komturstv (castle district), who had fortified castles, which served as the seat of the provincial commander (manager).The commanders took care of food supplies, clothing and weapons.He also was in charge of finances and clothing store.That provincial commander commanded the troops of the castle district during the war.However, most of the imp

ortant issues discussed at the Order's meeting (convention).

supreme governing body of the Order was a general meeting of the provincial commander - the chapter, which was held two times a year.Only with the permission of the Chapter Master could give to a fief of land contract, to make laws for local residents and share the revenues komturstv.The Chapter of the Order elected council consisting of a master, and 5 landmarshal advisers.This council had a tremendous influence on the decisions of the master.

Members of the Order divided into priests and knights.A distinctive feature of the knights wore a white cloak with a black cross.There were half-brother and that distinguish gray cape.The main battle was considered the backbone of the Order of the heavily armed cavalry.As part of the troops and mercenary soldiers.In addition to the permanent members of the Order army replenished by various knights to seek adventure.

Everyday life

The Livonian Order could enter only by the Germans, who are members of the old aristocratic families.Every new member and vowed to devote his life to the spread of Christianity.

Entering the Livonian Order, the Knights ceased to wear a coat of arms.It replaces common to all sword and a red cross on his cloak.

In addition, the Livonian Knights could not marry and own property.According to the charter, the knights were to live together, sleep on hard beds, there is scant food, could not without higher permission to go anywhere, receive or write letters.

brothers also were not allowed to keep anything locked up and could not talk to women.

whole life was regulated by the charter members of the Order.Each castle was a book of chivalry statutes which were read at least 3 times a year.Each day began with a member of the Order of the liturgy.

post for nearly a year.Mostly they ate porridge, bread and vegetables.Weapons and clothing were monotonous.

property Livonian knights was limited to a couple of shirts, a pair of breeches, two pairs of shoes, a raincoat, sheets, prayer and knife.Order members were not allowed any entertainment other than hunting.

But the charter was an indulgence, leading to the secularization of the organization, which was created by the Livonian Order: Knights can trade in favor of the relatives.First, the Knights were replaced by feats of arms for commercial and political activities, and soon completely switched to Protestantism, becoming a secular persons.