few people think about what is the role of organic chemistry in modern life.But it is huge, it is difficult to overestimate.In the morning, when a person wakes up and goes to wash and into the evening, when he goes to bed, he continually accompany the products of organic chemistry.Toothbrush, clothing, paper, cosmetics, furniture and interior design, and much more - all this gives us it.But once it was not so, and the organic chemistry know very little.
Consider how evolved gradually history of organic chemistry.
1. The period of development until the XIV century, called the disaster.
2. XV - XVII century - beginning of the development or iatrochemistry alchemy.
3. Century XVIII - XIX - the prevailing theory of vitalism.
4. XIX - XX century - intensive development, the scientific stage.
Start or natural phase of development of organic chemistry
This period includes the very birth of the concept of chemistry sources.But the origins go as far back as ancient Rome and Egypt, which are very capable
known that a very common food in the application of this historical period were animal fats, vegetable oils and resins that are used by healers and chefs.And in everyday life were closely various poisons as the main weapon vnutriusobnyh relations.All these substances are products of organic chemistry.
But, unfortunately, as such, the concept of "chemistry" does not exist, and the study of specific substances in order to clarify the properties and composition occurred.Therefore, this period is called spontaneous.All the discoveries were accidental, unfocused nature of consumer values.This lasted until the next century.
period jatrohimii - a promising start of
Indeed, it is in XVI - XVII centuries began to emerge direct representation of chemistry as a science.Thanks to the work of scientists at the time were obtained several organic substances, invented simple device for distillation and sublimation of the substances used a special chemical vessels for grinding materials, separation of natural products at the ingredients.
The main focus of that time was the medicine.The desire to receive the necessary medicines has led to the fact that from the plants stood essential oils and other raw material components.So, Carl Scheele had obtained some organic acids from vegetable raw materials:
In the study of plants and isolation of these acids scientist took 16 years (1769 to 1785).This was the beginning of development, laid the foundations of organic chemistry, which is directly as a branch of chemistry has been identified and named later (the beginning of the XVIII century).
In the same period of the Middle Ages GF Ruel identified uric acid crystals of urea.Other chemists had obtained succinic acid of amber, tartaric acid.In everyday life includes a method of dry distillation plant and animal raw materials, through which acetic acid, diethyl ether, wood alcohol.
Thus began the intensive development of the organic chemical industry in the future.
Vis vitalis, or "life force"
XVIII - XIX century for the organic chemistry rather twofold: on the one hand, there are a number of discoveries that have tremendous value.On the other, for a long time, the growth and accumulation of relevant knowledge and correct ideas inhibited the dominant theory of vitalism.
this theory coined and outlined the main Jens Jakobs Berzelius, who thus gave himself and definition of organic chemistry (the exact year is not known, either in 1807 or 1808).In terms of this theory, the organic substances can be formed only in living organisms (plants and animals, including humans), since only in living beings have a special "life force" that allows these substances produced.While inorganic substances get organic utterly impossible, since they are products of inorganic nature, non-flammable, without vis vitalis.
The same scientist was offered the first classification of all known at the time of the compounds on inorganic (non-living, all the substances such as water and salt) and organic (live, those kind of olive oil and sugar).Also Berzelius first outlined specifically what organic chemistry.The definition was: it is a branch of chemistry that studies the substance derived from living organisms.
During this period, scientists easily implemented conversion of organic substances to inorganic, such as combustion.However, the possibility of reconversion nothing is known until it was.
fate would have it decreed that it is student Jens Friedrich Wohler Berzelius contributed to the beginning of the collapse of the theory of his teacher.
German scientist working on compounds and cyanide in one of the experiments carried out was able to obtain crystals, similar to uric acid.As a result, a more thorough study he found that really managed to get organic matter from inorganic without any vis vitalis.No matter how skeptical Berzelius, he had to admit this undeniable fact.Thus it was struck the first blow to the vitalistic views.The history of organic chemistry began to gain momentum.
number of open crush vitalism
success has inspired chemists Wohler XVIII century, so began widespread testing and experimentation to produce organic compounds in vitro.Such syntheses are critical and most important have been several.
- 1845 - Adolf Kolbe, who was a disciple of Wohler, managed from simple inorganic substances C, H2, O2 multi-step total synthesis to obtain acetic acid, which is an organic substance.
- 1812 Kirchhoff Constantine the synthesis of glucose from starch and acid.
- 1820 Henri Bracon denatured protein acid and then treated with nitric acid and the mixture obtained from the first 20 amino acids synthesized later - glycine.
- 1809 Michel Chevreul studied the composition of fats, trying to split them into composite components.As a result, he obtained fatty acids and glycerin.1854 Jean Berthelot continued work Chevrel and heated glycerol with stearic acid.Result - fat, exactly follows the structure of natural compounds.Later, he managed to get and other fats and oils, which were slightly different in molecular structure from natural analogues.That has proved the possibility of obtaining new organic compounds, which are of great importance in the laboratory.
- J. Berthelot synthesized methane from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon disulfide (CS2).
- 1842 Zinin was able to synthesize aniline, nitrobenzene dyes.Later he managed to get a number of aniline dyes.
- A. Bayer creates its own laboratory, which has been active and successful synthesis of organic dyes, similar to natural: alizarin, indigoid, antrohinonovye, xanthene.
- 1846 synthesis nitroglycerin scientists Sobrero.He also developed a theory of types, which says that substances similar to some of the inorganic and may be prepared by replacing hydrogen atoms in the structure.
- 1861 AMButlerov synthesized sweeteners formalin.He also formulated the theory of chemical structure of organic compounds relevant to the present day.
All these discoveries have defined the subject of organic chemistry - carbon and its compounds.Further discoveries were designed to study the mechanisms of chemical reactions in organic matter, to establish the nature of the electronic interactions and to the structure of the compounds.
second half of the XIX and XX century - a time of global chemical discoveries
history of organic chemistry over time all underwent great changes.Many scientists work on the mechanisms of internal processes in molecules, reactions and systems yielded fruitful results.So, in 1857, Friedrich Kekule developed the theory of valence.Also it owns great merit - the discovery of the molecular structure of the aromatic hydrocarbon benzene.At the same time, AM Butlerov formulated the theory of the structure of compounds, which indicates tetravalence carbon and the existence of the phenomenon of isomerism and isomers.
VV Markovnikov and Zaitsev AM deepen the study of reaction mechanisms in organic matter and formulate a set of rules that explain these mechanisms and confirm.In 1873 - 1875 years.I. Wislicenus, Van't Hoff and Le Bel study the spatial arrangement of atoms in molecules, reveal the existence of a stereo-isomers, and are the ancestors of the whole science - stereochemistry.A lot of different people involved in the creation of the field of organic matter, which we have today.Therefore, scientists of organic chemistry noteworthy.
end of the XIX and XX century - a time of global discovery in the pharmaceutical industry, paint industry, quantum chemistry.Consider the opening to ensure maximum value of organic chemistry.
- 1881 Conrad M. and M. Gudtseyt synthesized anesthetics, veronal and salicylic acid.
- 1883 L. Knorr received antipyrine.
- 1884 F. Stoll received aspirin.
- 1869 Hyatt brothers won the first man-made fiber.
- 1884 D. Eastman synthesized celluloid film.
- 1890 received cuprammonium fiber L. Depassi.
- 1891 Charles Cross colleagues got viscose.
- 1897 F. Miescher and Buchner founded the theory of biological oxidation (cell-free fermentation was discovered and enzymes as the biocatalysts).
- 1897 F. Miescher discovered nucleic acids.
- beginning of XX century - the new chemistry organometallic compounds.
- 1917 Lewis opened the electronic nature of chemical bonds in molecules.
- 1931 Hückel - founder of quantum mechanics to chemistry.
- 1931-1933 biennium.Laymus Pauling substantiates the theory of resonance, and later his collaborators reveal the essence of trends in chemical reactions.
- 1936 synthesized nylon.
- 1930-1940 biennium.AE Arbuzov gives rise fosfoorganicheskih development of compounds that are the basis for the production of plastics, drugs and insecticides.
- 1960 Academician Nesmeyanov with the students in the laboratory creates the first synthetic food.
- 1963 Vinho du receives insulin, which is a huge step forward in medicine.
- 1968 Indian HG Qur'an was able to get a simple gene that helped in deciphering the genetic code.
Thus, the importance of organic chemistry in the lives of people simply enormous.Plastics, polymers, fibers, paints and varnishes, rubber, rubber, PVC materials, polypropylene and polyethylene, and many other modern materials without which there is simply not possible to life, complex path to its discovery.Hundreds of scientists have made their long hard work that has developed a common history of organic chemistry.
modern system of organic compounds
done a great and difficult way in the development, organic chemistry, and now does not stand still.There are more than 10 million. Connections, and that number is growing every year.Therefore, there is a systematic arrangement structure of substances that gives us organic chemistry.Classification of organic compounds is presented in the table.
|class of compounds||avilable||general formula|
|hydrocarbons (comprised of only carbon and hydrogen atoms)|| || |
alkanes CnH2n + 2;
alkenes, cycloalkanes CnH2n;
alkyne CnH2n-2 alkadienes;
|Substances containing different hetero atoms in the main group|| || |
|carbonyl compounds|| ||RC (H) = O|
|Compounds containing carboxyl group|| || |
|compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen or phosphorus in the molecule||may be cyclic and acyclic||-|
|organometallic compounds||carbon connected directly to the other element, not hydrogen||C-E|
|Organometallic compounds||carbon associated with the metal||With-Me|
|Heterocyclic compounds||At the heart of the structure cycle with members of the hetero||-|
|Natural substances||large polymer molecules that makecomposition of natural compounds||proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, alkaloids, and so on. d.|
|Polymers||Substances with a high molecular weight, which are based on monomeric units||n (-RRR-)|
Learningthe whole variety of substances and reactions in which they come, and is the subject of organic chemistry today.
types of chemical bonds in organic substances
For any of the compounds characterized elektronnostaticheskie interactions within molecules that are expressed in the presence of organic matter covalent polar and non-polar covalent bonds.The organometallic compound may form a weak ionic interaction.
nonpolar covalent coupling occurs between C-C interaction in all organic molecules.Covalent polar interactions characteristic of the different atoms in a molecule, non-metals.For example, C-Hal, CH, CO, CN, CP, CS.This all links in the organic chemistry, which exist for the formation of compounds.
species of formula organics substances
most common formulas for the number of members of a compound called empirical.Such formulas exist for each of the inorganic material.But when it came to drawing up formulas in organic matter, the scientists had to face several problems.Firstly, the weight of many of them hundreds or even thousands.It is difficult to determine the empirical formula for such a huge matter.Therefore, over time, a section of organic chemistry, as organic analysis.Scientists believe its founders Liebig, Wohler, Gay-Lussac and Berzelius.They, together with the works of AM Butlerov, determine the existence of isomers - compounds that have the same qualitative and quantitative composition but different molecular structure and properties.That is why the structure of organic compounds is expressed today is not empirical and structural complete or condensed structural formula.
These structures - characteristic and distinctive feature of which is organic chemistry.Formula recorded with dashes indicating chemical bonds.For example, reducing the structural formula of butane will be in the form CH3 - CH2 - CH2 - CH3.Full structural formula shows all the chemical bonds in the molecule.
Also there is a method of recording molecular formulas of organic compounds.It looks the same as at the empirical inorganic.For butane, for example, it would be: C4H10.That is the molecular formula gives an idea only of the qualitative and quantitative composition of compounds.Structural characterize the bond in the molecule, so they can be used to predict future behavior and chemical properties of the substance.