term "institution" has two meanings: a technical, narrow and social, general.Sociology borrows its interpretation in the jurisprudence, adding its own characteristics.Although the core of it remains the same: social institutions - the norms that regulate some relations in the sphere of society.Animals to adapt to the environment and survive use instincts.Man has long lost the bulk of them.The role of instincts in a society now play social institutions.They also allow for the possibility to survive in the struggle for existence in society.Their main purpose - to meet the needs of more than one person, and the team as a whole.It seems that every individual a unique set of needs.This is true, but all of them can be identified five dominant.They correspond to the basic social institutions:
- the need to reproduce the sort (the institution of marriage);
- need to live in such a social order, which would be completely safe (political institutions, state);
- the need to ensure its existence (economic inst
- the need to transfer his knowledge and experience to the younger generation (educational institutions);
- the need to find meaning in life, spiritual development (Institute of Religion).
At the end of the 19th century social institutions deployed Thorstein Veblen described.This information remains relevant today.He suggested that social institutions have been formed, and the evolutionary process of natural selection.In order to adapt to the environment and to survive, mankind was forced to create a variety of rules and prohibitions.The first arose, most likely, the institution of family and marriage.
Thus, social institutions - these devices fit in the society, which are created in order to meet its main needs.
Regulated they vault special norms which are transmitted from generation to generation and are gradually becoming accustomed to a particular team, develop into a custom or tradition.They are dependent on the direction of thinking and life.
and Veblen, the founder of institutionalism, and Hamilton, his successor, identified the social institutions as a set of customs, accepted in society, as the realization of specific habits, ways of thinking, behavior, lifestyle, are transmitted from one generation to another, change inDepending on the circumstances, and at the same time serve to adapt to new conditions prevailing.
Almost as that term is understood and lawyers (in the form of binding legislation in the customs of the society).
institutions exist even in the most primitive society.Otherwise, it can not be called a society.From their right or wrong functioning depends on the state of society.
So, are functions of the family institution in the birth and upbringing of children.Economic institutions serve as shelter, clothing and food.Institute for Political support different standards, regulations and laws.Religious institutions promote the deepening of faith, establishing relations between faiths.Educational institutions engaged in social adaptation of people in society, attached to the basic values.Each of these institutions has its actors, their characters, features and characters.
In addition, this concept is not abstract, they are quite visible, tangible.It is not a rigid system, it is constantly evolving.For example, the institution of the family.He went through several stages: from group marriage and polygamy to monogamy.Nuclear family with two generations (children and parents) at the center of attention extended replaced.Also exchanged wedding, to the role of wife and husband, the views on the education of the new generation.