Second World War knows many important victories and fateful events.But the Battle of Moscow holds a special place in history.It was here, under the walls of white stone, the German army suffered its first major defeat.At Moscow it was practically buried the plan Hitler's "Blitzkrieg" and the myth of the invincibility of the army of the Third Reich has been debunked for good.
Overall, the Battle of Moscow was composed of a complex set of battles and operations, which took place on the vast territory and the continued fall of 1941 and winter of 1942.
In these events on both sides of the front was attended by more than two million people, two thousand tanks, almost two thousand aircraft and more than twenty five thousand different combat guns.
By the nature of the battles near Moscow events can be divided into two stages: defensive and offensive.
Battle of Moscow 1941: the defensive phase
the fall of '41, Soviet troops were forced to leave Kiev, Smolensk, retreat to Leningrad.Kharkiv, Donetsk regi
in Hitler's Headquarters developed a special operation "Typhoon" to capture the capital of the USSR.According to this operation, the city was subject to imprisonment in absolute blockade that no resident had not been able to leave.This was followed by the complete destruction and flooding of Moscow.Survivors there was not to be.Ruins supposed to fill with sand, and put on top of a monument in honor of the invincible German army.It is significant that the stone of the monument were taken to Moscow with military equipment.
in the direction of Moscow at that time were three Soviet fronts: the Western, Bryansk and Reserve.Against them stood the German Army Group "Center" of more than a million soldiers.It had more than half of the guns, tanks and aircraft of the total, which at that time possessed Hitler's army.
Soviet army at the time had a much smaller supply of weapons, and its quality was worse.Therefore, on the defensive stage of the Soviet troops it had to be very hard.
Mozhaisk and Volokolamsk direction is the shortest route to Moscow.It was there that began a most severe fighting for the first approaches to the capital.Soviet soldiers had a truly heroic resistance.Unequal forces are compensated by the personal heroism.At the cost of his own life, they strove not to miss an enemy to the heart of the motherland.
in Moscow and its suburbs has been declared a state of siege.The residents were preparing for the defense of their city.
However, at the end of October 41 Commander Zhukov proposed change in the defense counterattack.The task of the Soviet troops were rout of the enemy and eliminate the threat to close Moscow.
Battle of Moscow, winter 1942: the stage of the offensive
December 6 by the Red Army had suffered the first serious counter-attack north and south of Moscow.Offensive zone developed 1,000 kilometers - from Kalinin to Yelets.December 9, our troops push back the enemy smog by nearly 40 kilometers.The Germans, though, and had excellent weapons, but were not ready for combat in the harsh Russian winter and unbeatable personal heroism of Soviet soldiers.Also affected by the lack of reserve forces of the enemy.
Hitler was forced to sign an order to move its troops in defense mode, removing from office at the same time most of his generals and the supreme command of switching completely over.But the situation on the front to break it failed.
To the new 1942 German troops were driven from Moscow already two hundred kilometers, Kalinin and Kaluga were liberated from the Nazis.The immediate threat of capture of Moscow was no more.
value of the Battle of Moscow
This event, no doubt, influenced the course of the Second World War, as the first Battle of Moscow brought a landslide victory to Soviet troops.The capture of the capital would have paralyzed the country and resulted in a landslide victory of Nazi Germany.Here the role played not only the psychological component.In the Moscow region it has focused a lot of industrial and defense systems, which worked throughout the war.It produces 70% of the aircraft for the army, most of the shells.
Once the enemy was repulsed from the walls of the capital, the morale of the Soviet soldiers climbed significantly.This enthusiasm and unconditional faith in victory helped later in the Battle of Kursk and Stalingrad.
From a strategic point of view of the Battle of Moscow helped defeat the best grouping of German troops - infantry and tank.
Soviet troops were significantly reformed after this battle.Some scattered pieces, already proven in battle, were merged into a new division with the confident and experienced commanders.It
Moscow became the Rubicon through which were unable to move German troops in World War II.