Swing, as a category of physical concepts, is one of the basic concepts of physics and is defined in general terms as an iterative process of change in a certain physical quantity.If these changes are repeated, then this means that there is a certain period of time after which the physical quantity takes the same value.This time interval is called the period of oscillation.
And actually, why the hesitation?Yes, because if we fix the value of this quantity at the moment for example T1, then it will take time Tx has a different meaning, for example, will increase, and another time it will increase again.But the increase can not be eternal, because in an iterative process, the moment will come when the physical quantity is required to be repeated, ieagain takes the same value as a time T1, although the time scale this is the time T2.
What has changed?Time.I passed a time period that will be repeated as the time distance between the same physical values.And what happened to the physical quantity during
good example of oscillatory process - spring pendulum.Sinker moves up - down, the process is repeated, and the value of a physical quantity, for example, lifting height of the pendulum oscillates between maximum and minimum values.
Description of vibrations includes parameters for the universal vibrations of any nature.This may be mechanical, electromagnetic waves, etc.This is always important to understand that the oscillation process for its existence necessarily involves two objects, each of which can receive and / or give energy - this is the very mechanical or electromagnetic, which was discussed above.At any time, one of the objects gives the energy, and the second takes.This znergiya changing its essence on something very similar, but not that.Thus, the energy of the pendulum, moves into the energy of the compressed spring, and they are changed periodically during the fluctuations, solving the eternal question of partnership - someone who lift and lowering, ieto give or to store energy.
electromagnetic oscillations in the name contain an indication of the alliance members - electric and magnetic fields, and these fields are the custodians of the well-known capacitors and inductors.Connected in the circuit, they constitute an oscillation circuit, wherein the energy transfer is performed in the same way as in a pendulum - electric energy of the capacitor becomes a magnetic field inductor and vice versa.
If the system-inductance capacitor to itself, and it emerged electromagnetic waves, their period is determined by the parameters of the system, ie,inductance and capacitance - the other is not.Simply put, to "pour" energy from a source, for example, the capacitor (and still has a precise analogue of its name - "capacity"), in the inductance, you need to spend time proportional to the amount of stored energy, t.e.emkosti.In fact, the magnitude of this "capacity" is a parameter which determines the period of oscillation.More capacity, more energy - energy transfer lasts longer, the longer the period of electromagnetic oscillations.
What physical quantities are included in the set that defines the description of the electromagnetic field in all its forms, including in the oscillatory processes?This field components: charge current, magnetic induction, intensity.It should be noted that the electromagnetic waves - a wide range of phenomena, which we tend to associate with each other rarely, although it is the same entity.And how do they differ?The first difference of any fluctuation among themselves - it's their time, the essence of which was considered above.In engineering and science to say about the value of the feedback period, the frequency - the number of oscillations per second.The system unit of frequency - hertz.
So, the whole range of electromagnetic waves - a sequence of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation, which are distributed in space.
Conditionally distinguish the following areas:
- radio waves - spectral zone from 30 kHz to 3000GGts;
- infrared - plot with longer than the light emission;
- visible light;
- ultraviolet rays - a site of shorter than the light emission;
whole range of reduced radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a single nature, but different frequencies.A breakdown into sections is purely utilitarian character, which is dictated by the convenience of the technical and scientific applications.