Under the knowledge to understand a set of processes, methods and procedures for the acquisition of knowledge about various phenomena and objects.The purpose of knowledge, according to various researchers, is to master the forces of nature, perfection of man, as well as the search for truth.
Knowledge is divided into scientific and unscientific.In the latter, in turn, allocate ordinary, artistic, mythological and religious knowledge.Scientific knowledge is different from other forms.It is a process of acquiring knowledge even if to some extent subjective and relative, but aimed at the reflection laws related to objective reality, which can be called reality.Challenges facing the scientific knowledge is a description, explanation and forecasting processes and phenomena occurring in reality.
structure of scientific knowledge implies the division into levels, which distinguish the forms and methods of knowledge.The structure of scientific knowledge has two levels - in the form of theoretical and empirica
At the empirical level is collected factual, empirical experience, as well as their primary generalization.
basic methods of empirical knowledge are the two basic points: observations and experiments.Observation - this method is the purposeful, premeditated, organized by the perception of the objects of the world, is based on sensory perception of the world in which to acquire knowledge about the nature and properties of the object.The experiment involves, in contrast to the observations, the possibility of active influence on the phenomena and processes.
Theoretically, there is a processing of data and facts obtained empirically revealing internal interconnections between different phenomena.At this level the structure of scientific knowledge presented hypotheses and theories.Hypothesis - is a scientific hypothesis explaining any phenomenon and requires experimental verification and theoretical justification.The theory - it is a system of interrelated statements and evidence that explains and predicts phenomena in a given area.The theory should reflect the objective laws of nature and society.
structure of scientific knowledge in philosophy suggests another level - metatheoretical.There are philosophical installation, as well as methods, ideals, standards, regulations, etc. regulativesOn the meta-theoretical level develops scientific world.
structure of scientific knowledge implies the relationship.This means that the two main ways in the form of knowledge of theoretical and empirical necessarily linked with each other.Empirical knowledge by observation and experiment collects new data, stimulating theoretical knowledge, setting up new challenges, and theoretical knowledge, in turn, summarizes and explains the phenomena derived empirically, and puts forward hypotheses and theories require empirical verification.
structure of scientific knowledge in philosophy follows the structure of non-scientific knowledge.
development of scientific knowledge led to the separation of science discipline.The disciplinary structure of science has a dual character.On the one hand, the separation of science disciplines, sectors, sections allowing a particular person to specialize on a particular issue and study it more deeply.On the other hand, the specialization of Lots general knowledge, resulting in a loss of its integrity.That is why in the last century began the process of integration of science, which resulted in the emergence of new sciences at the junction of the existing ones.So, at the intersection of biology and engineering appeared bionics, which uses the structure of living organisms to solve engineering problems