Scientific knowledge, like any philosophical concept, has a very complex structure.It is a holistic, but is in constant development system.Between its elements, there is a close relationship, but there are significant differences.
basic methods and levels of scientific knowledge are determined by two factors: the empirical and theoretical and implemented with the help of observations and experiments, as well as hypotheses, laws and theories.There are also metatheoretical levels of scientific knowledge in philosophy, represented the philosophical research settings and depend on the style of thinking scientist.
consider levels of scientific knowledge in philosophy begin with the empirical.In the first place this is the level of knowledge of the factual material that is carefully reviewed and analyzed and on this basis made the systematization and generalization of the results.This level handles sensory methods and the object under study is shown primarily in the external manifestations, which are ava
Those levels of scientific knowledge, which inherently have the empirical methods, help to develop the object under study by comparing, measuring, monitoring, creation of conditions for the experiment and analyze the information received.However, we know that the experience is not possible without a theory.The lack of rational things sometimes leads supporters of the empirical level of scientific knowledge to the inexplicable absurdity.
Therefore, methods and levels of scientific knowledge can not exist without each other and theoretical method always dominates the experimental, as it is based on rationalism.Theoretical knowledge is making its conclusions on the basis of phenomena of reflection on all sides, including internal connections and patterns, as well as external parameters derived empirically.Scientific knowledge in this case by means of concepts, reasoning, laws, principles, etc.and get an objective and specific, more complete and informative.The techniques of abstraction, creating ideal conditions and mental constructions, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction together make knowledge aimed at achieving the objective truth that exists regardless of the activity of the knowing subject.
Thus, we can conclude that the empirical and theoretical levels of scientific knowledge are separated in philosophy is very conditional, because without each other does not make sense.The boundary between them is very mobile.The empirical method opens the way to more complex theoretical knowledge, setting objectives and stimulating more complex actions.And often it looks scientific knowledge so that one level flows seamlessly into another, resulting in a positive impact of new scientific discoveries.
Considering the levels of scientific knowledge, can not be said about the meta-theoretical knowledge.It is also not isolated from the two previous levels of knowledge, as expressed value orientations research.Meta-theoretical level of knowledge requires that the knowledge gained through theoretical or empirical evidence and was justified, explained, described and constructed to facilitate the proper organization of knowledge, and not create chaos and do not contradict each other.Important in scientific knowledge - is to get the real picture of evidence system in the world.
So now we can clearly see that all levels of scientific knowledge can not exist in isolation.They tselenapravlyayut, set tasks and solve them in scientific knowledge only jointly.