huge Eastern country, where they like to eat insects, made all kinds of household items and diapers kalligrafichno learn to draw characters long beckons explorers with its mystery and subtle mentality.China can always surprise: exotic, interesting way of life, unknown to us, the Slavs, thinking.One of its highlights is Confucianism, which can be summarized as how to educate people for the benefit of society and to themselves.
word "Confucianism" has a European origin.It was formed by the Latinized form of the title and the names of its founder and means "wise teacher Kun".At the same time its Chinese analogue "Ms Jiao" is translated as "the doctrine of enlightened, well-bred people."On this basis, many of the ancient scholars have argued that Confucianism - the religion scholars.But this is not true.Calling for strict beliefs considered difficult, rather it is a way of life, way of thinking and perception of the world.
Despite this, Confucianism has always regarded as a religious and phil
founder of the teachings of Confucius
He lived in VI-V century BC.It was a period of strife and fragmentation of the country.Therefore, in the teaching display the desire to remake the chaotic state of affairs and bring stability and prosperity to society.Future great philosopher born in the family of the former aristocrats who went bankrupt.He was orphaned early and lived modestly until he was lucky to get the money to travel to the State of Zhou - the royal domain, where he safely landed a job in the library.It was here that he met with Confucius, Lao Tzu, which spent much time in conversations and discussions.
Returning home, he became interested in ancient rituals and music, which, according to Chinese beliefs, reflect the universal harmony and recreated it among the people.All these principles later and it absorbed the teachings of - ancient Confucianism.Soon philosopher opened his own school and became the first teacher-professional in the history of China.The most interesting thing is that his disciples will certainly become important statesmen.Confucius himself never received high office, though it sought.He died scientist in his hometown of Qufu.
This book - the basis of all of Confucianism.It contains all the sayings of Confucius and approval.Students philosopher on particles collected these valuable information, the result was a collection consisting of short conversations with the philosopher and his followers.They form all the principles and dogmas which advocates Confucianism.Concise book passed the whole life of Confucius:
- 15 years.Thoughts turned to education.
- 30 years.Gaining independence.
- 40 years.Getting rid of the doubt.
- 50 years.Knowing the will of Heaven.
- 60 years.The ability to distinguish truth from falsehood.
- 70 years.Following the desires of the heart and the ability not to break the ritual.
In these short lines - all Confucius.Its a long way from education to follow a free heart and a desire to adhere to ethical standards has become a reference point, moral and sacred, for the whole of Chinese philosophy.Confucianism (the philosophy of the teachings and moral principles passed down from generation to generation) is honored by all the people of China.
At the root of the philosophy
teachings of Confucius, like the other great Chinese religious and philosophical currents, originated in China in the VI-V century BC.This is the time to replace the golden era of state come the chaos and devastation.There was a broken main principle of the empire "who are rich, who know."People who did not have any relation to the aristocracy, had wealth at the expense of iron, which have begun to actively produce.All of this violated the harmony and provoked infighting.
Reactivate the order should have been mass flow and teachings that emerged like mushrooms after rain.Some lasted only a couple of decades.Others - Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism - so firmly integrated in the culture of China, it is simply impossible to imagine today without them.Thus, the teachings of Confucius from scratch does not arise.At the time of devastation and misery great philosopher pondering the principles and methods that would be able to restore order.And the main way to achieve harmony in his opinion, was the man himself, his upbringing, morality and behavior.
Since the doctrine was first put in order the affairs of the country, it was political in nature and based on ethical principles.It is first raised by a man and then all the rest, including the policy will be to square one.We must become more interested in the soul of the people, said the philosopher.That is the decision of the Board of important aspects of the empire teachings of Confucius viewed through the prism of society where the human factor plays a major role.
Time has shown that it really works.The most difficult thing was this: to make people behave, as suggested principles of ethics and morality.People, even those who want to change for the better, can not immediately turn over your inner world upside down.Often it is impossible.Others simply do not want to work on themselves.It took a special approach, and Confucius found him.He took the worship of the cult of the ancestors of the Chinese people.Images of the deceased to the other world were more significant and real than an abstract sky.It is known that the legendary ancestor - the image of a role model in China.The same symbol of the nation and later became Confucius himself.
This sacred law, which adheres to Confucianism.Briefly describe the value can be as follows: the ritual - it is not memorized the rules of human behavior, and their meaningful actions, gestures and words.It is an independent phenomenon that people should learn from their mother's milk.It is the nature of this gift is to live right and beautiful.The notion of the ritual complex, multi-faceted.Confucius said more than once that it is not always possible to respect it.Even righteous ancestors often stray from the road.
According to Confucius, man should love his neighbor, to feel responsible for the execution of his duty to society and the country, to be sincere and faithful, to take care of younger and older read.These qualities and the teaching based philosopher.Standards of behavior in the family circle, he endured a huge empire.The pledge of peace and prosperity in China is that everyone is in place and clearly takes the functions assigned to it, said Confucius.He called it "yes Harrier" - the principle of human relations, which acts as the main core of humanity.This is the basic rule of a harmonious society.
What is meant by this concept Confucius?According to him, to become one, the Chinese must have five qualities of character to be able to keep fit and not get trapped, breadth of vision to win the crowd, to inspire confidence in others, controlled by mercy, and be successful at the expense of its own cleverness.But often a great teacher confessed to his disciples, that he can not call himself a completely humane.After all these qualities - just the tip of the iceberg.
principles of Confucianism has always been wider than it seemed at first glance.The same humanity, according to the philosopher - is not only the ability to love and appreciate people.It's not even humanity as a recognition of the individual precious lives.Philanthropy includes the concept of responsibility, heritage, traditions of worship and many others.
example, Confucius once strongly condemned man who three years instead of the mourned by parents all year.Philosopher called it immoral and totally devoid of humanity.
Another principle underlying Confucianism.This deference with respect to older people, brotherly love, mutual aid and protection on the younger ones.Noble husband always humane.So says Confucianism.The philosophy of the concept is closely intertwined with philanthropy.They determine the truth of man, not his education or training.
Was there a humane himself a great teacher?The answer to this question can be analyzed the situation in which one was Confucius.As a connoisseur of the intricacies and peculiarities of the ritual, he was invited to the house of an aristocrat.Beginning of the presentation and the music started, ran the actors who had to show thematic scene.But Confucius suddenly interrupted the presentation and ordered the execution of the whole company.Brutally it?Yes, certainly such behavior does not correspond to humanity and philanthropy.But then the philosopher demonstrated another important rule of Confucianism as an Eastern religion: a clear instruction to be executed to comply with all the dogmas and principles, otherwise you will be punished.That's what happened with the actors who have departed from the script.
Nobility and culture
Every self-respecting person should possess these qualities.Since Confucius believed.This ritual observance - an integral part of the cultural life and the noble Chinese.That is, people have to first of all think not about food, but about higher matters.A gentleman always thinks about the sublime: a way of life and culture.The principles of Confucianism has always put emphasis on the spiritual rather than carnal saturation.
other side of culture, according to Confucius, a sense of proportion.The animal does not control their instincts, and when he sees the food, then swallows it completely.Predator will stalk their prey to exhaustion and loss of strength.Man - a being of the highest rank.He must comply with around a middle ground, not to be like the beast, even if we are talking about such his innate instinct as satisfaction of hunger.
As for the nobility, they have the Chinese, who can go to the end of the three roads: the hermit, and military officials.At the same time it must abide by the following rules: in the first case be merciful and do not worry, in the second - to know and no doubt in the third - to be brave and not be afraid.
Education - an important part of the ritual.It can be concluded, studying Confucianism.Short and logical thinking, be aware of all the events, know the basic principles of development of this or that sphere - all this must be able to any self-respecting Chinese.It manifests itself in the doctrine of human perfection, Confucius said.He was the first in China, who opened free schools.Philosopher became a teacher of all the people.
School Confucianism taught his players to choose the right path in life and do not turn from it.Philosopher lectured and talked with students, believing that the right idea and the statement was born in the dialogue.Talking, people share their knowledge, experience of the interlocutor, support it.Confucius also often told about the life of ancestors, comparing it with the present.The teacher was always condescending.He demanded a lot from those who really is wise and soulful.From mediocre minds, he did not expect great achievements, just trying to improve and develop them.
role of Confucianism
Of course, it is huge.In today's world, Confucius - a symbol of the nation, which gave China the spiritual and moral longevity.In history books he is often portrayed as an old man, surrounded by children.What was actually his appearance, no one knows.Appearances philosopher covered many legends and myths.As for his teachings, over the centuries it has modified and transformed.
millennial history of Confucianism, so the modern version of the doctrine is essentially different from the old.Today is a special way of life that does not understand the Europeans."East - a delicate matter," - they say that it is absolutely logical and consistently.Even in the XXI century, Chinese officials are trying to keep the commandments of the doctrine and behave like Confucius preached.Their actions are dictated by the legacy of the ancient philosophical and religious currents, which makes the Chinese people do not like other people, and the Celestial Empire - especially not the same as the majority of States.The role of Confucianism in this great.His influence is felt in all spheres of life of the Chinese.