Medieval philosophy succinctly: problems, features, brief characteristics, stages

Middle Ages - it is almost a thousand-year period in the history of Europe.It originates from the collapse in the fifth century AD, the Roman Empire, captures feudalism and ends at the beginning of the fifteenth, when it is the Renaissance.

Basic features of the philosophy of the Middle Ages

Features medieval philosophy briefly present the Christian faith as a tool to unite all people, regardless of their financial situation, nationality, profession, sex.Medieval philosophers have ensured that every person baptized, received the opportunity to gain in the hereafter the benefits, which was deprived of this.The belief in the immortality of the soul as the main component of the essence of each person calls between them all: the king and the beggar, the publican, and the artisan, the sick and the healthy, male and female.If you think of the stages of evolution of medieval philosophy brief, is to establish dogmas of Christianity and the introduction of the Christian worldview in the public consciousness

in accordance with the requirements of feudalism as the main form of government most of the time.

problems of Christian philosophy

main problems of medieval philosophy summarized quite difficult.If you try to present them in a few words, it is the establishment of world domination of the Christian church, study its doctrine from the scientific point of view, from the standpoint of, understandable and acceptable to the people of all categories.One of the major conflicts of medieval philosophy was the topic of universals.The dichotomy of spirit and matter expressed in a controversy nominalists and realists.According to Thomas Aquinas universal concept manifested in the threefold form.First - domaterilny, that is intangible, in the form of the original idea of ​​the Creator.Second - material or material that is physical appearance.Third - posleveschny other words, imprinted in the memory, the mind of man.Thomas Aquinas contradicted Nominalist Rostselin.His view extreme rationalism was to ensure that the world may know only from the perspective of the primacy of matter, because universals are only in their titles.Studies worthy only of what is individual.It is not a mere swing vote.The Catholic Church condemned the theory Rostselina as incompatible with the tenets of Christianity.The Holy See was approved version of the world order of Thomas Aquinas.His moderate realism was eventually adopted by the Catholic Church as the most rational and logical justification quite easily.

God-seeking - the main task of medieval philosophers

Medieval philosophy can be summarized as the search for God and designated confirmation of the existence of God.Atomism of ancient Greek philosophers had been cast out, as well as the consubstantial god of Aristotle, but Platonism, in contrast, has been taken in the aspect of the trinity of the divine essence.Theocentrism medieval philosophy is summarized in the Catechism.Christianity began to occupy the dominant position in the political life of medieval Europe.Severe problems of the era of the Inquisition and medieval philosophy briefly fully used as a driving force for the introduction of the Christian way of thinking in the domestic relations in the agricultural communities, between merchants and townspeople among the knightly class.

Three stages of medieval philosophy

are the following stages of medieval philosophy, summarized the essence of the following.The generalized characteristic of the first - the establishment of the trinity of God, the proof of the existence of God, the adaptation of early Christian rituals and symbols to the nascent Christian Church.The second phase of medieval philosophy has set itself the task of establishing the rule of the Christian church.The third stage of medieval philosophy is briefly defined as a period of rethinking institutionalized in the previous period of the Christian dogmas.Separation of these phases in time and personalities philosophers themselves can only be very conditionally, since different sources provide in this respect inconsistent information.Scholastica, patristic and apologetics are very closely linked and intertwined.However, the apology is still considered the time of origin of the medieval view of the philosophical science of being and consciousness of the person and takes about the length of time from the second to the fifth centuries.Patristics conventionally begins in the third century in a dominant position is active until the eighth century, scholasticism is most clearly represented in the interval from the eleventh to the fourteenth century.


first phase was defined as apologetic.Its main adherents were Quintus Septimius Florent Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria.Apologetic features medieval philosophy can be briefly described as a struggle with the pagan concepts of the world order.Faith must be above reason.What Christianity can not be verified, it should be taken as the truth of God, without expressing doubt or dissent.Faith in God should not be rational, but it should be cut off.


The second stage is to determine the patristic, since at this time there is no need to prove the existence of God.Now philosophers need to accept everything coming from him as a blessing, as a wonderful and useful gift.Medieval philosophy succinctly and clearly communicates the gospel to the Gentiles through the organization of the Crusades.Who is not with the Christian Church is against it, with fire and sword burned out dissent.St. Augustine of Hippo, in his "Confessions" lack of faith in God and the sinful desires of man defines as basic problems of medieval philosophy.He claims that all is well in the world of God and the bad - of the evil will of man.The world is created out of nothing, so everything in it was originally conceived as a good and good.The man has a will of its own and can control their desires.The human soul is immortal and retains memory even left his earthly abode - the physical human body.In patristic, the basic features of medieval philosophy briefly - is unremitting efforts to spread Christianity throughout the world as the only true information about the world and man.During this period philosophers it was established and proven incarnation of the Lord, His resurrection and ascension.Also it was established dogma of the second coming of the Savior, the Last Judgment, the universal resurrection and new life in the next incarnation.It is very important from the point of view of the existence in the eternity of Christ's church and priestly continuity within it, was the adoption of the dogma of the unity and catholicity of the Church.


third stage - the scholastic medieval philosophy.Brief description of the period can be designated as shaping the church and Christian tenets set out in the previous period.There are schools, philosophy becomes theology.Theocentrism medieval philosophy, to put it briefly, seen as the establishment of schools and universities with theological orientation.The sciences and humanities are taught from the perspective of the Christian faith.Philosophy becomes the service of theology.

philosophical quest and Christian thinkers

Medieval philosophy, a brief description of its steps lucidly explained in textbooks on the history of philosophy.You can also find references to the works of such prominent thinkers of the first stage, the representatives of apologetics Tatian and Origen.Tatian collected four Gospels of Mark, Luke, Matthew and John into one.They later became known as the New Testament.Origen created a branch of philology, based on biblical stories.He also belongs to the introduction of the concept of the God-man in relation to Jesus Christ.Among the philosophers who have left the most significant mark in this science, of course, not to mention the patristic Boethius Anica Severin Manlius Torquatus.He left behind a remarkable work "Consolation of Philosophy".Medieval philosophy was briefly summarized and simplified them for teaching in schools.Universal - the brainchild of Boethius.On the initiative of its seven main areas of knowledge were divided into two kinds of disciplines.First - this is the humanities.In trёhpute included rhetoric, grammar and dialectics.Second - science.At this chetyrёhpute includes geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy.He also translated and explained the main works of Aristotle, Euclid and Nicomachus.Scholastica in the philosophical doctrine is always associated with the name of a monk of the Dominican Order of St. Thomas Aquinas, who codified the tenets of the Orthodox Church, he led five invincible proofs of God's existence.He united and logically linked philosophical calculations of Aristotle with the teachings of the Christians, showed that natural human being, reason and logic in the development is sure to go to a higher level of consciousness, namely, belief in the existence and active participation of the omnipresent, omnipotent and intangible triune God.He discovered and proved are always committed by a sequence ends when the mind is faith, nature - grace, and philosophy - a revelation.

philosophers - the holy Catholic Church

Many medieval philosophers have been ranked by the Catholic Church as a saint.It Irenaeus, St. Augustine, St. Clement of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, John of Damascus, Maximus the Confessor, Gregory of Nyssa, Basil, Dionysius, Boethius, canonized as St. Severin and others.