device vessel - it is an important task that faces employees Navy.They must fully provide freight and passenger flows.All problems can be effectively addressed only by improving the quality of the fleet.You can enhance the old vessels, or to build modern models.
What are the court?
Today, a large variety of ships that are of different types.This is due to the fact that they were designed for different purposes, as well as conditions for their continued operation.That's why experts are faced with tasks such as specialized ship design, construction and repair organization, introduction of new standards, planning further shipments and comparative economic performance of the count.Ship models can be classified by the following features:
- By type of vehicles and self-propelled rolling stand.
- method movement - vessels that float above the water with the help of an air cushion, as well as on the surface of the water.There are devices that can move easily under the water - it is submarines.
- body condition.Among the huge range includes models that are rigid, flexible and inflatable body.
- main body material.During the production of steel can be used, light metal alloys, plastics, wood, concrete structures, or flexible composite materials.
- Navigation area.There are ships and coastal navigation.
- Rhode main propulsion.Ship models include such a device because it helps to bring it into motion.There are boat, which has a piston or a steam turbine installation.On the boat set the internal combustion engine.
ships that have civilian mission, presented in the form of transport or fishing vessels.They were created to maximize the maintenance of peaceful relations among nations.These sea vessels provide foreign trade, business and cultural relations, help to produce products of the sea, as well as to process it.They are equipped with special equipment for transportation of industrial goods and food.Civilian ships are equipped with various additional devices that depend on their further destiny:
- transport or merchant ship.They can carry passengers or a small amount of emergency supplies - a mail, parcels, luggage and more.Transportation vessels sailing line may make regular flights between multiple ports.They are also referred to as liners.Cargo ship transporting cargo to the uncertain line could go in any direction.
- fishing vessel.With such a design can be extracted from the sea products, that is to catch fish, marine animals, algae.Fishing boat allows people to process products from the sea in semi-finished products or any other finished products.It also transports it to the shore or a floating base.
- Research vessels.They are designed for scientific and research work in the open sea or ocean.These include specially equipped and adapted submarines or surface ships.
- training ship.It is for employees who perform swimming practice.Quite often used by persons who are trained in special education.These marine vessels required to be equipped with laboratories, classrooms and auditoriums, where you can perform practical development issues.
What form should have a court
Each type of ship has a corresponding shape of the body, which depends on many factors.These include the main purpose of the vessel, the conditions of its intended use, speed, quality, and many other parameters.The vessel's hull is an elongated body which has a curved surface.They help to create a streamlined, which will reduce the resistance of water and air in motion design.
front of the ship is called the bow and constructed taking into account the established rules of the ship's construction drawing.To a vessel that floats on the surface of rough water, do not go into the waves, all the board body should be slightly extended in height.Experts are paying particular attention to the rack screw and rudder, which should provide the best possible working conditions.
basic principle of the creation of the theoretical drawing
Before the start of construction of the theoretical drawing designer must imagine the intersection of the hull.It is necessary to use auxiliary, parallel, and main diametral plane.Section line should form a frame body, which will give a clear idea about the maximum and form design.Resulting in the final result, the projection includes a side, the breadth and the main body.
projection housing section has the form of straight lines, which will form a grid of theoretical drawing.When a person builds this grid, the design waterline should be divided into twenty equal parts.They mean by an em space, and can be made by dividing the theoretical frames.The device vessel rather complex, so the need to work on the design of extremely qualified.
numbering is done by moving the lines from the nose to stern.When the script is ready theoretical drawing, you need to remove all the resulting coordinates of the points of intersection of the lines and grid.They are useful for translating the scale of the drawing in real dimensions.All received data to be recorded in a dedicated magazine which includes tables lofting ordinates.In the future, they are used in shipyards, as well as special workshops.Here experts have the floor as the drawing board, called the Plaza.It is represented by a life-size and is divided by the theoretical drawing.During the construction of the ship to the plaza remove all patterns and sizes to make details of the hull.
What additional devices equipped fishing vessels?
Court for industrial use are used for catching fish, seals, whales, walruses and many other living resources of the sea.Hooker takes a third of the world's merchant fleet.You can select the following types of fishing vessels that are equipped with special devices:
- Seiner - a design with which you can perform using fishing nets.The harvest is carried out by means of arrows truck.
- trawler.It is unique in its design of the vessel, which helps to carry out fishing with trawl - a network provided in the form of a big bag.
- Drifter.Today, the ship enjoys great demand because it allows you to fish in the drift.Equipped with a flat grid.
- floating fish cannery and database.Presented designs out into the open sea and engaged in processing canned fish directly.There's mesh trawls, processing and refrigeration equipment.
- Whalers.They are used to maximum efficiency whaling.In most cases, they go out to sea in droves, and fleets.These vessels Equi large and reliable network that can withstand a lot of weight.
- Barge.Presented designs are fishing using nets.They go to the Black and the Caspian Sea and the work of the diesel fuel.
Today you can find various ships and vessels.But among such a wide variety of designs represented a military mission, which belong to the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.They necessarily drawn outward signs that distinguish these from the civil court.Among the commanders must be an officer who is in the service of the Russian government.Name of the officer should be present in the list of military personnel.
warship includes Army equipment and outfit.The device is characterized by the presence of vessels provided military equipment.It will be used in case of an attack on the protected area.
device transport vessels
Sea transport is considered to be the most profitable and popular.It will help to transfer loads to intercontinental communications.The transport ship is the main specialization - a transport large quantities of goods.These include large, liquid and bulk cargo.When it comes to food, during the transport is subject to certain temperature and vibration missing.
can identify the most common vessels are equipped with additional devices:
- Dry cargo ships can carry a varied range.To perform the transportation of meat and fish products, fruits and vegetables, these ships are additionally equipped with a refrigeration unit.
- tankers designed for the transport of cargo, which is a liquid or gaseous state.Companies and factories are engaged in the transportation of petroleum products, chemical products, fertilizers, as well as liquefied natural gas.There is a compartment for transport of particularly dangerous goods.
- Container.They can carry containers such as containers.These vessels are equipped with the necessary navigation equipment.It will help to place, attach the mounting and control of cargo during its transportation.The unit shall have the necessary additional beams and floors for reliability.Bulk carriers
- help carry bulk cargoes such as grain, ore, and coal.
- ro-ro is a special-purpose vessels.They are widely used for horizontal or mixed method of loading the goods.
- Ferries transporting the equipment coasting.The main difference - is the transportation of passengers, vehicles and wagons for the railways.
Small craft: the device
During construction, the construction of vessels are paying special attention.Housing - a central part of any modern vessel, it includes trim and planking.It is these components are able to give the ship the required shape and still provide indicators such as the strength, water resistance and rigidity of the vessel.It is these functions define a device small boat.
set represents a specific load-bearing structure, which consists of the compounds of the longitudinal and transverse beams, or ties.When they are connected to each other, we get ready to frame.It serves as a reference circuit that is intended for shell plates, decks.The framework defines the further stability and rigidity of the vessel.
There are several systems of the ship.Their classification depends on the direction of the main beam:
- longitudinal and transverse.
What system is used for the construction of a set of small boat?
During the construction of a small vessel used exclusively transverse framing system beams.Specialists use frames, flora on the bottom, as well as beams under the deck.The amount of longitudinal beams in the transverse system set small.They are used to cross-link.The total number of beams does not exceed five pieces, and this includes the vertical keels and stringer.
Set bottom of the ship comprises intersecting longitudinal and transverse links.At the ends of the ship should be the keel, which is connected to shtevnyami.To several times to reduce the scale of the ship during the roll, it is necessary to attach the side keel.It can have a variety of design and serve as a longitudinal link.In most cases, it does not extend in width over conventional package size.
Without control there can be no maritime transport.The steering gear of vessels is an important set of mechanisms and tools that ensure retention of the ship afloat.Such a device includes steering the car sector, screw or hydraulic actuators.Today, there are designs that are the main drive wheel and hand.
device vessel, and steering in particular, must meet the following requirements:
- maximum allowable angle for the rudder - no more than 35 degrees.For the ships of the river fleet that value may be 45 degrees.
- duration rudder ship can not be more than 28 seconds.
- Each steering gear must fully ensure safe and proper operation of the steering gear while pitching ship.