story of language, the very origin of the word "Russia" has always been interesting to scientists - philologists, historians, linguists.His understanding of the term gave many Russian writers.It is used in the works of folklore.The first attempts to explain the meaning of the word rooted in antiquity.Over the past century, it emerged several versions of its interpretation, but no one of them was not entirely true.
origin of the word "Russia" and the literary heritage of the Russian people
In support of the ideas expressed above, we can cite examples of literary works by authors who represent their vision and interpretation of the origin of the word "Russia".
version expressed by Nestor, as is commonly believed, is one of the most ancient.The author of "The Tale of Bygone Years" left to posterity records that cause to reflect on many things, including the origin of the Russian people, its historic homeland.A different interpretation of the concepts offered by other well-known literary figures of
In the novel V. Chivilikhin "Memory" the author put forward the version about the existence of unexplained origins, which are able to feed the energy of each person living in their native land.With the ability to honor their historical homeland, know the language and customs of their ancestors, people can endure and overcome any adversity.The work provides evidence of occurrence of the first Russian settlements on the banks of the numerous rivers and lakes.
origin of the word "Russia" is seen in many school and university textbooks.In some authors' interpretation of the concepts are very similar.Other scientists are to readers his vision, different from the views of his colleagues.It should take into account that each of the authors has done extensive research before you put forward your suggestion.And it is worthy of respect.
Effect of foreign and ancient languages on the birth of hypotheses
There are many versions in which the theory of the origin of the word "Russia" is related to the foreign languages.For example, in the Western European group used root "Rus", the value of which is reduced to the word bear.The Finno-Ugric languages token such as sound there.All this served as the basis for the emergence of a still further version, explaining the origin of the word "Russia".
Latin also spawned conjecture, trying to explain the meaning of this concept.Cognates in that language meant the countryside.
Possible origin of the proper name and the names of the people are in Swedish, Iranian, ancient Russian, many Slavic languages.Traditionally, the interpretation of the concept is related to the ancient state located in Eastern and Northern Europe, as well as the people inhabiting it.Most linguists still inclined to believe that the word "Russia" for many reasons can not have a Slavic origin - it comes from a foreign language.
There is a large group of scientists, linguists, historians who attributed the origin of the word "Russia" with the name of a river or a noun denoting a body of water.This version looks more reliable and has concrete evidence.
known that most of the ancient settlements of the Slavs appeared precisely on the shores of rivers and lakes.Water greatly facilitates the life of the people was used in economic activity is a natural obstacle in the path of the enemy troops on the water can easily move around in the summer, roads in winter.
That's the word "Russia" is in close communication with the name of the river, on the banks of which in ancient times were based settlement, which became the beginning of the great cities.It is known that Ros - a right tributary of the mighty Dnieper.The same name centuries ago wore a lot.The word "Russia" is related to the name of one of the branches of the river in its delta.Bay, where he fell, was called-virus.
similar names, and other wore a small river, a tributary of the larger bodies of water.In this regard, one should not forget that the great Volga River in ancient times was also called Ros or Ras.
According to Rybakov and a group of other scholars, the origin of the word "Russia", "Russian" is connected with the name of the tribe, who lived in ancient times in the vast territories of contemporary Eastern Europe - to Kiev in the north and in the steppe zonesouth.Later Ros tribes or Russes, as they were called, were joined by their neighbors.Combining tribes was the reason for the birth of the people who later became known as the Russian, and the area where he lived - Rus.
Another group of scientists trying to explain the origin and meaning of the word "Russia", said that its interpretation is not closely related to the water and the forest.Dew - is stubbing forests, the people who settled in the territories covered by forests.This forest has helped families survive the harsh climatic conditions, giving warmth, food, allowing you to make such a basic household items.
This group versions include another.As mentioned above, the word "bear" in some Western European languages on the sounding very similar to the root of the "Russian".It follows that Russ could call people who settled in the forest, leading a secretive way of life, but strong and powerful like a bear.This animal is considered the most powerful and menacing forest dwellers.
This hypothesis is related to the occurrence of words spoken Finno-Ugric group.In some of them there is also a word that is similar in its sound, pronunciation by the roots "growing up."In translation, it sounds like "Vikings", which means "the Merc".Basically, the Vikings were people, which were the to Eastern Europe.Later, the place where most of them came, came to be called Rus.Originally, the word "Vikings" was not the name of the people, and pointed to the social status of a group of people.
Now there is speculation that the Vikings and Russian - are words that are close in meaning.They mean the name of one and the same people who lived on the territory of the ancient state in the north of Europe.
One common hypotheses to explain the meaning and origin, indicating that the "Rus" - is not the name of the tribe.According to scientists, they called those involved in collecting tribute from the people who were supposed to pay.
confirmed this version is a modern translation of "The Tale of Bygone Years", where the name of the Slavic tribes opposed to the word "Ros".
words with the same root, their interpretation
Considering the meaning of Russia, it is impossible not to draw attention to the existence of an entire group of forms that are close to it in meaning.After a little research it is not difficult to notice that each of these interpretations, one way or another connected again with water, river, sea.
For example, the mermaid - a mythical creature that lives in water bodies.About it tells the ancient pagan beliefs.And in the rapids of the Dnieper inhabits another fabulous monster, his name - Eng.
In some areas of Russian dialects hitherto used lexical units having a common root with the word Russia.For example, ruslina - a rod or Riptide, Rust - the rapid movement of the water flow direction - groove on the land, a place where the river flows.Names and Ruslan Ruslan is believed, are also related to the word Russia.
Instead of conclusion
version of the origin of the word "Russia", they point to a huge variety of great interest in this matter not only of scientists around the world, but also ordinary people.Attention to the subject has not diminished over the centuries.
large number of existing versions indicate unresolved issues.But it becomes clear as follows: the formation of a powerful ancient Russian state was the basis for the formation of a unified nation and the birth of the Russian language.The circumstances surrounding the feudal fragmentation of Rus', the invasion of the Tatars, led to the fact that the cultural development of individual territories went their own way.
But despite years of fragmented existence, "gathering the Russian lands" still held, which subsequently led to the emergence of an independent unified Russian state.