Modern jets.

modern youth, and even mature citizens, it is difficult to understand what caused the excitement, it seemed then fantastic flying machines.Silver drops rapidly dissecting of a blue sky, excited the imagination of young people early fifties.Wide vapor trail left no doubt in the type of engine.Today, only computer games like War Thunder, with their promotional offer to buy a jet aircraft of the USSR, give some idea about this stage of development of domestic aviation.But it all began even earlier.

What does "jet»

reasonable question arises about the name of the type of aircraft.In English it sounds briefly: Jet.Russian definition hints at the existence of some kind of reaction.It is clear that it is not about the oxidation of the fuel - it is present in conventional gasoline engines.The principle of operation is the same jet as in missiles.The reaction of the physical body on the strength of the discharged gas stream is expressed in giving it the opposite direction of the acceleration.All the rest -

is already the subtleties, which include various technical parameters of the system, such as the aerodynamic properties of the scheme, the wing profile, the type of engine.There are possible variations to which engineering firms reached in the process, often finding similar technical solutions, independently.

Separate research from aircraft missile in this aspect seriously.In the propellant boosters installed to reduce the length of the run and afterburner, the work was done before the war.Moreover, an attempt to install the compressor motor (unsuccessfully) for the airplane Coanda in 1910 allowed the inventor Henri Coanda assert the priority of the Romanian.However, this design was originally unworkable, confirmed by the first test, during which the aircraft burned.

First Steps

first jet aircraft, able to carry out in the air for a long time, appeared later.Pioneers began the Germans, although some progress scientists have made in other countries - the United States, Italy, Britain and backward while technically Japan.These samples were, in fact, gliders ordinary fighters and bombers, which were installed in the engine of a new type, devoid of propellers, which caused surprise and disbelief.In the USSR this problem, engineers are also involved, but not as active, with an emphasis on proven and reliable screw technique.Nevertheless jet airplane model B-1, equipped with turbojet engine designed by M. cradle, has been tested just before the war.The unit was very unreliable, nitric acid is used as the oxidant, eating up fuel tanks, there were other issues, but the first steps are always difficult.

«Shturmfogel" Hitler

Because of the mentality of the Fuhrer, had hoped to crush the "enemies of the Reich" (which he considered the country almost all the rest of the world), in Germany after the beginning of World War II turned the work on the creation of different types of "miracleWeapons ", including jet.Not all areas of this work were unsuccessful.For successful projects include "Messerschmitt-262" (aka "Shturmfogel") - the first jet aircraft in the world to mass-produced.The unit was equipped with two turbojet engines, radar was in the bow, a top speed close to that of sound (more than 900 km / h), and proved to be quite effective against high-altitude B-17 ("Flying Fortress") allies.Fanatic faith of Adolf Hitler in the extraordinary possibilities of new technology, however, paradoxically played a bad role in the combat biographies of the Me-262.Designed as a fighter, he was directed by the "above", converted into a bomber, and this modification has not shown itself fully.

«Arado»

jet principle was applied in mid-1944 for the construction of a bomber "Arado-234" (again by the Germans).He managed to demonstrate his extraordinary combat capabilities of attacking positions allies landed in the port of Cherbourg.The speed of 740 km / h and a ten-ceiling did not give chance flak hit the target, and the American and British fighters simply could not catch up with him.In addition to bombing (very imprecise for obvious reasons), "Arado" makes aerial photography.The second experience of using it as a means of shock took over Liege.German losses not incurred, and if resources from Nazi Germany was greater, and the industry would be able to release the "Ar-234" in the amount of more than 36 instances, the anti-Hitler coalition countries would have fared badly.

«U-287»

German developments fall into the hands of friendly during the Second World Won after the defeat of Nazism.Western countries are already in the final phase of the fighting have started to prepare for the coming confrontation with the USSR.Stalin's leadership has taken counter-measures.Both sides were clear that in the next war, if it takes place, will fight jets.The Soviet Union at that time did not yet have nuclear potential impact, the work was only to create the production technology of the atomic bomb.But the Americans had captured very interesting "Junkers-287", which had the unique flight characteristics (combat load 4000 kg, range 1500 km, ceiling of 5000 meters, the speed of 860 km / h).Four engine negative sweep (the prototype of the future "invisible) allowed to use the aircraft as a nuclear carrier.

first postwar

Jets have not played a decisive role during World War II, so the bulk of the Soviet production facilities is focusing on improving the design and increasing the production of a conventional screw fighters, attack planes and bombers.The question of promising medium atomic charges was difficult, and it was decided quickly, copy the American Boeing B-29 (Tu-4), but the main purpose was opposition to any possible aggression.To do this, first of all needed fighter - tall, agile and, of course, speed.On how to develop a new direction of aircraft, can be judged by the letter designer Yakovlev to the Central Committee (Autumn 1945), who found a certain understanding.A simple study of captured German technology party leadership considered it insufficient measure.Country were necessary modern Soviet jets that are not inferior and superior to the world level.At the parade, 1946 in honor of the anniversary of the October (Tushino) they had to show the people and foreign guests.

Time Yaqui and MiGs

Show had something, but did not work: summed up the weather, there was a fog.Demonstration of new aircraft was moved to May Day.The first Soviet jet aircraft made a series of 15 specimens have been developed Mikoyan and Gurevich (MiG-9) and Yakovlev (Yak-15).Both samples were different hull steps scheme, in which the tail of the bottom jets of washed, manufactured nozzles.Naturally, to protect it from overheating, these special areas of skin covered with a layer made of a refractory metal.Both aircraft were different weight, including engines and destination, but generally corresponds to the state of Soviet Aircraft school late forties.Their main purpose was to move to a new type of power plant, but in addition perform other important tasks: training of flight personnel and development of technological issues.These jets, despite the large volumes of their output (hundreds of units), were considered as temporary and to be replaced as soon as possible, immediately after the appearance of more advanced designs.And soon, the moment has arrived.

Fifteenth

This aircraft has become a legend.It was built at an unprecedented peacetime series, both in combat and in the paired school version.The design of the MiG-15 used many revolutionary technical solutions, the first attempt to create a reliable system rescue pilot (catapult), its equipped with a powerful cannon armament.The speed of a jet airplane, a small, but very effective, allowed him to defeat the armadas of heavy strategic bombers in the skies of Korea, where the war flared shortly after the emergence of a new interceptor.MiG became the equivalent of a US "Sabre", built on a similar scheme.During the fighting appliances fell into enemy hands.Soviet aircraft hijacked a North Korean pilot, tempted by the huge cash reward.Padded "American" managed to pull out of the water and transported to the Soviet Union.A mutual "exchange of experience" to learn from the most successful design solutions.

Passenger jet

speed jet - its main advantage, and it applies not only to the bombers and fighters.Already in the late forties to the international airlines went ship "Comet", built in Britain.It was created specifically for the transport of persons, it was comfortable and fast, but unfortunately not reliable: in two years, seven accidents happened.But progress in the field of high-speed passenger traffic already it was impossible to stop.In the mid-fifties in the USSR there was the legendary Tu-104 version of the conversion Tu-16.Despite the many flight accidents occurring with new aviation equipment, jet aircraft are increasingly mastered the airlines.Gradually form a long-term appearance of the liner and ideas about how it should be.Propellers (screw propellers) used by designers increasingly rare.

Generations of fighters: the first, second ...

Like almost any technique, jet interceptors are classified by generations.In total there are now five, and they are not only the years of release patterns, and design features.If the concept of the first samples basically had to turn out the base of achievements in the field of classical aerodynamics (in other words, a type of engine was the main difference between them), the second generation took over the essential features (swept wing, is quite different form the fuselage, etc.). In the fifties,it was felt that the air battle will never be worn maneuverable character, but time has shown the fallacy of this view.

... and from the third to fifth

«Dog dump" of the sixties between the "Skyhawk", "Phantoms" and MiGs in the skies over Vietnam and the Middle East have indicated the course of further development, marking the arrival of the second generation of jet interceptors.Variable geometry wing, the ability of multiple exceeding the speed of sound and Missiles combined with the powerful features of avionics become the third generation.Currently, the Air Force base of the park most of technologically advanced countries is the fourth generation of machines, which have become further product development.For service has received more sophisticated designs, combining high speed, maneuverability, low visibility and means of electronic warfare.This generation of the fifth.

bypass engines

Externally today Jets first samples do not look for the most anachronistic.View many of them are quite modern, and the specifications (such as ceiling and speed) are not very different from today, at least at first glance.However, on closer acquaintance with the performance characteristics of these machines, it is clear that in the last decade to make a qualitative breakthrough in the two main directions.Firstly, the notion of variable thrust vector, creating the possibility of a sharp and unexpected maneuver.Second, combat aircraft are now able to stay much longer in the air and travel great distances.This factor is due to low fuel consumption, that is economical.He achieved using, to put it in technical terms, dual-circuit (low-pass).Experts know that this combustion technology provides a more complete combustion.

Other features modern jet

are several.Modern civil jet aircraft engines feature low noise, high comfort and high stability in flight.Usually they widebody (including mnogopalubnye).Samples of military aircraft are equipped with (active and passive) to achieve a low radar signature and electronic warfare.In a sense, the requirements for defense and commercial patterns intersect today.Economy needs of all types of aircraft, though for different reasons: in one case, to increase profitability, the other - to extend the combat radius.And today we have to make a noise as low as possible both civilian and military.