The immune system

opening of the first cells of the immune system (1887) - phagocyte (macrophage) - belongs Mechnikov.Phagocytosis (the process of absorption of some other cells) was already known since 1862.However, Mechnikov first time established a link between this process and the protective function, which has the immune system.According to many researchers, from that moment began to exist a new branch of medicine - Immunology.

immune system of the human body is a set of anatomical structures.Its function is to provide protection against various infectious agents, products of their vital activity, substances and tissues, endowed by foreign antigenic properties.

immune system can recognize a huge number of pathogens - from microbes to worms, while distinguishing them from the biological molecules of their own cells.In many cases, the definition of an infectious agent is very difficult by its ability to adapt by developing new ways of penetration and infection.

Antigens are molecules that triggers specific react

ions.Not necessarily the pathogen enters the body from outside.For example, in autoimmune pathologies as antigens are the body's own cells.

The ultimate aim is the destruction of the protective structure malicious pathogen.The immune system is endowed with a variety of methods and tools to detect and eliminate foreign agents.This whole process is called a "response."The immune response can be acquired or congenital.

Acquired reaction differs from the existing innate reaction high specificity with respect to a certain kind of foreign agent.This allows re-penetration of the pathogen to identify and eliminate it as soon as possible.

In some cases, a person has formed a life-long protection against the penetration of certain antigens, for example, after the chicken pox, diphtheria, measles.

From an anatomical point of view, the immune system is somewhat fragmented.Despite some dispersed through the body and all its structures have a close relationship through the lymph and blood vessels.Government protective structure is divided into central and peripheral.There are also immunocompetent cells.By

central lymphoid organs defensive structure include the thymus (thymus), lymphoid formation in the colon and appendix, fetal liver, bone marrow.

immunocompetent cells are considered to polynuclear leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, Langerhans cells (white skin epidermotsitov Process), and others.

to peripheral lymphoid organs of protection include the spleen, lymph nodes.

total mass of all the cells and organs that comprise the immune system, the adult is about one kilogram.

in peripheral structures, there is a differentiation (the emergence of differences between homogeneous cells) and proliferation of antigen.In the central organs and structures between the mature immune cells.The last (most of them) are constantly circulating.So, part of the immune cells of the vascular bed is moved in the direction of any department of the protective structure and back.All components of the protective structure of interconnected components.Cells communicate with each other constantly, directly entering into a bond or releasing cytokines and immunoglobulins (antibodies) in the environment.Cytokines, which are formed by monocytes and macrophages are termed monokines and formed lymphocytes - lymphokines.

Thus, the relationship of all the structures of the immune system and its allocated cell antibody forms a complex mechanism of self-protection.