Matches can be attributed to a relatively recent invention.Before in human hands flashed modern match, held a wide variety of openings, each of which has made its significant contribution to the evolutionary path of the subject.When matches were invented today?Who created them?What a way of becoming overcome?Where they invented the first match?And what facts still hides the story?
value of fire in a person's life has long been
fire was given pride of place in everyday life.He played an important role in our development.Fire is one of the elements of the universe.For ancient people, he was a phenomenon, and its practical application were not even aware.The ancient Greeks, for example, keep the fire as sacred by passing people.
But cultural development has not stood still, and the fire is not only learned to use efficiently, but also independently extracted.The bright flame began to warm the home year-round, the food received heat treatment and become tastier, began to actively develop the smelting
first fire - what is it?
As you know, the first time the fire was produced by man many years ago.As our ancestors did?Simple enough: we take two pieces of wood and began to rub them, with tree pollen and dust heated to such an extent that spontaneous combustion was inevitable.
replaced by "tree" fire came a flint.It is a spark produced by striking steel or copper pyrites of flint.Then these iskrinki ignited some combustible material, and it turned out that the most famous flint - Lighter intact.It turns out that the lighter was invented before matches.The difference was their birthdays three years.
also the ancient Greeks and Romans was known a method of producing fire - by focusing the sun's rays by a lens or a concave mirror.
In 1823, invented a new device - the incendiary device Deberayera.The principle of it was based on the use of the ability of detonating gas ignite on contact with spongy platinum.So all the same when they were invented modern match?Let's look at this issue in more detail.
significant contribution to the modern invention of matches was introduced by the German scientist A. Gankvattsem.Thanks to his wit matches first appeared with sulfur coating which ignited by friction on a piece of phosphorus.The shape of these matches was extremely uncomfortable and demanded a speedy improvement.
origin of the word «match»
Before figuring out who invented the matches, let's find out the meaning of this concept and its origins.
word "match" has the old Russian roots.Its predecessor is the word "needle" - a pointed stick, a splinter.
Originally called needles nails, made of wood, the main purpose of which was to attach the soles of shoes.
formation of the modern history of the matches
When matches were invented today - the moment is quite controversial.This is due to the fact that until the second half of the XIX century of international patent law was not as such, and the base of a variety of chemical discoveries were various European countries at the same time.
The question of who invented the match, much more transparent.The history of their appearance owes its origin to the French chemist Berthollet KL.Its key finding is the salt which is in contact with the sulfuric acid promotes the release of huge amounts of heat.Later this discovery became the basis of scientific work of Jean Chancel, thanks to the efforts that have been invented and the first match - a wooden stick, the tip of which is coated with a mixture of salt Berthollet, sulfur, sugar and gum.Such a device is ignited by the pressing head matches asbestos pre-impregnated with a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
Their inventor was John Walker.It was little changed components match head: bertoletova salt + gum + antimony sulfide.To set fire to these matches, in cooperation with the sulfuric acid was not necessary.They were dry sticks for ignition which was enough to strike on any rough surface: paper coated with sand, grater, ground glass.The length of the matches was 91 cm, and their packaging was a special pencil box, in which you can put 100 pieces.The smell of them was terrible.They first began to be issued in 1826.
What year invented phosphorus matches?Probably, we should link them with the appearance of 1831 when the French chemist Charles Soria added to a mixture of incendiary white phosphorous.Thus, the constituent components were match head Berthollet salt, glue, white phosphorus.Any friction was enough to improve a match lit up.
main drawback is the high degree of flammability.It was eliminated one of the drawbacks of matches - an unbearable smell.But they were harmful to health due to the release of phosphorus vapor.Employees of enterprises and factories were exposed to serious diseases.Considering the latter, in 1906, banned the use of phosphorus as one of the constituents of the match.
Swedish Match products are none other than the current match.Year invention they come in 50 years with the moment that saw the light of the very first match.Instead of phosphorus incendiary mixture of red phosphorus was incorporated.A similar composition, based on contained red phosphorus was used for coating the lateral surface of the box.Sunbathing such matches exclusively in cooperation with its phosphor-coated container.They do not represent any danger to human health and are fireproof.The founder of modern matches is considered the Swedish chemist Johan Lundstrom.
In 1855 took the Paris International Exhibition, where Swedish Match has been given the highest award.A little later, phosphorus was altogether removed from the incendiary components on the surface of the box, he remains to this day.
for modern matches are usually used aspen.The composition comprises an incendiary mass sulfide sulfur, paraffins metals, oxidants, manganese dioxide, glue, iron oxide, glass powder.In manufacturing coatings sides box used red phosphorus, antimony sulfide, iron oxide, manganese dioxide, calcium carbonate.
will be interesting!
first match container was not a cardboard box and a metal chest-boxes.Labels were not, and the name of the manufacturer indicated on the stamp, which puts on the lid or side of the package.
first phosphorus matches could ignite due to friction.This approach is absolutely any surface: from clothes to match the most container.
matchbox made by Russian state standards, has a length of exactly 5 centimeters, so it can be used to accurately measure objects.
Matches often used as a determinant of the overall characteristics of various items that can be seen only in photos.
indicators matches the dynamics of the production operations of the world's 30 billion cartons a year.
There are several types of matches: gas, fine, fireplace, alarm, thermal, photographic, business, hunting.
When matches were invented today, but then went into active use and special packaging for them - boxes.Who would have thought that this would be one of the promising marketing moves that time.On such packages portrayed advertising.The first commercial advertisement on a box of matches was created in America now Diamond Match Company in 1895, which promoted the comic troupe Mendelson Opera Company.In the visible part of the box was a picture of a trombonist.Incidentally, the last remaining advertising matchbox made at the time, was recently sold for 25 thousand dollars.
idea of advertising on the matchbox was accepted with enthusiasm, and was widely adopted in the business sphere.With container for matches touting a brewery "Pabst" in Milwaukee, Tobacco King Duke, chewing gum Wrigley's Chewing Gum.Looking through the box, got acquainted with the stars, national celebrities, athletes, and so on. D.