Freedom and responsibility of the individual.

addressed the theme is very relevant in our time.The right to liberty is treated as an opportunity to every individual to perform any desired actions at their discretion and on their own under the relevant legislation, while respecting the rights and freedoms of others.

problem of freedom and human responsibility

To get started is to interpret these two concepts.Freedom - one of the main complex philosophical categories that define the essence of man.It represents an individual's ability to think and perform certain actions on the basis solely of their own intentions, interests and desires, and not exposed to the outside.

In today's world, in terms of the accelerated pace of the evolution of civilization, the special role of the individual in the public part of strengthened fast enough, which is why more and more there is a problem of freedom and personal responsibility before the society.

since ancient times to the present day almost all the developed philosophies keen on the idea of ​​freedo

m.The first attempt to explain the organic relationship of freedom to the need of its recognition belongs to Benedict Spinoza.He interpreted this concept in terms of perceived need.

further understanding of the dialectical unity of the Union expressed Friedrich Hegel.From his point of view of scientific, dialectical materialist solution of the problem is the recognition of freedom as an objective necessity.

individual freedom in society is essentially limited its interests.In this regard, there is a problem: people taken separately - is an individual and his desires often do not coincide with the interests of society.Therefore, a person must follow the laws of the public, because otherwise fraught with consequences.

Currently (the peak of development of democracy) the problem of freedom of the individual to the status of the global growing.Now it can be solved at the international level.To do this systematically developed and adopted all sorts of "security" legislation, which outlines the rights and freedoms of the individual.It is in the modern world is the basis of any policy.However, not all the problems of the focus today solved in the world and particularly in Russia.

should also be noted syncretism of concepts such as freedom and human responsibility, due to the fact that the first is not permissiveness, and for violation of third party rights and freedoms of the individual is responsible in accordance with the law passed by the society.Responsibility - the so-called price of freedom.The problem of freedom and responsibility is relevant in any country of the world, making it a priority, and the search for solutions - an important task is paramount.

Variety of freedom in terms of philosophy

It can be:

  • internal (ideological, spiritual, freedom of the mind, with the consent of his soul, and others.);
  • outside (there is in the process of interaction with the outside world, financial freedom, freedom of action);
  • civil (social freedom, which does not limit the freedom of others);
  • political (freedom against political despotism);
  • religion (the choice of the Lord);
  • spiritual (so-called power of the individual over his own selfishness, their sinful passions and feelings);
  • moral (human choice about their good or evil inclination);
  • economic (freedom regarding the disposal of all its assets at its own discretion);
  • true (the desire for freedom of human nature);
  • natural (recognition of the need to live according to the established natural laws of nature);
  • action (the ability to act according to the conscious choice);
  • choice (granting a person the opportunity to consider and choose the most suitable option for themselves the outcome of the event);
  • will (the possibility of empowering the individual to choose according to their own desires and preferences);
  • absolute (situation where the will of every person in it is not subject to the infringement on the part of the will of the other participants).

Regulators freedom

They are in varying degrees restrict it.These include:

  • the freedom of others;
  • State;
  • culture;
  • morality;
  • nature;
  • education;
  • laws;
  • morality;
  • own customs and abutment;
  • understanding and awareness of the need.

Examples freedom and responsibility meet, so to speak, at every step.If we look at them from the point of view of the problem with respect to these categories, here include the situation: injury or killing the perpetrator in the course of self-defense, theft mother products for their hungry children, and others.

philosophical approach to the interpretation of this concept

representatives of ancient philosophy (Socrates, Diogenes, Seneca, Epicurus, and others.) believe that freedom - the meaning and purpose of human existence.

medieval scholastics (Anselm of Canterbury, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, and others.) Perceived it as a reason, and that any acts committed in this case were possible only within the church dogmas, otherwise freedom was equated with heresy, a grave sin.

Representatives of New time (Baron d'Holbach, Thomas Hobbes, Pierre Simon Laplace, and others.) Interpreted freedom as the natural state of man, the path to justice and social equality.

thoroughly investigated the issue at the German classical philosophy.For example, Immanuel Kant believed that freedom - intelligible object (idea), belongs only to man, but for Johann Fichte it - only absolute reality.

concept of responsibility

It is a category of law and ethics, which reflects the moral, legal and social relationship of the individual to the whole of humanity in general and specifically to the society.Building up modern society, strengthening the conscious element in the framework of its social life, the communion of the people for independence in the management of the society, and all this along with the ethical responsibility of each individual.

within the legal framework of the administrative, criminal and civil liability, which, in addition to the detection of the offense, take into consideration the ethical implications of the offender (the conditions of his education, occupation, level of consciousness of guilt, a willingness to further correction).Against this background, the moral and legal responsibility are intertwined (the process of understanding the individual interests of the society subsequently leads to an understanding of the laws of progressive nature of the story).

Compliance with all the rights and freedoms of the individual, as well as the existence of a legal responsibility for the crimes - the main feature of the rule of law.

evolution and improvement of human civilization dictate the need for a civilized development and the legal aspects, so that introduced the concept of a purely legal state, which acted as the equivalent of any state.

went into lawlessness being (human rights and freedoms does not provided and not protected).To date, the society has at its disposal new methods of legal arrangement of the individual, providing him confidence in the future.

syncretism of the concepts regarding the identity

concept of freedom of the individual affects the philosophical aspect of life.Against this background, the rhetorical question: "Does a person have real freedom, or whatever he does is dictated by social rules and regulations under which the individual is there?" First of all, freedom - an informed choice regarding the outlook and behavior.However, the society strongly limits its through a variety of rules and regulations, which are caused by the intention of creating a harmonious development of the individual within the social system.

Great minds wondered: "What is the relationship of freedom and responsibility?" They concluded that the responsibility - the basis, the inner core of a man who controls his ethical stance and motivational component on certain actions and behavior in general.In a situation where the individual adjusts its behavior according to the social attitudes, it comes to the ability of such an internal human conscience.However, such a combination of the concepts are more contradictory than refined harmony.Rather, the freedom and responsibility of the individual are equally complementary and mutually exclusive.

Types responsibility

It happens:

  • social;
  • moral;
  • political;
  • historical;
  • law;
  • collective;
  • personal (individual);
  • group.

There are various examples of responsibility.This could include the case when the company "Johnson & Johnson" found traces of cyanide in capsules "Tylenol", he refused to produce the product.The total loss thus amounted to 50 million dollars.Subsequently, the company announced that they are taking all possible measures to protect the population.This is an example of social responsibility.Unfortunately, such cases are on the modern consumer market can be very rare.

can cause domestic examples of responsibility and freedom, when a person has the freedom to choose the music he wants to listen to, but there are also time limits her audition (if music is very loud after eleven pm, administrative liability, as a result ofwhich is facing a fine).

models the relationship of man and society

There are only three:

  1. struggle for freedom (and irreconcilable open conflict these categories).
  2. Adaptation to the environment (the individual voluntarily follows the laws of nature, sacrificing his desire and the desire to be free).
  3. Escape from the surrounding reality (the person being aware of his impotence in the struggle for freedom, is sent to a monastery or tends to itself).

Thus, in the process of understanding how interconnected freedom and responsibility, should take into account a person's behavior.If the individual is keenly aware that for which it makes concrete action, and not trying to go against the well-established social norms and rules, the category considered in perfect harmony with each other.

as human beings can be realized only if, if he uses his freedom as a right choice.You can also note that this is how high position in life, just as the means and ways to achieve it will be in harmony with the laws of the evolution of reality.The concept of liability, in turn, is connected with the need to make a conscious choice of ways and means to ensure the achievement of the desired goal.

So, we can conclude that promotes freedom of expression of individual responsibility, and the responsibility it serves directing stimulus.

problem of personality within the philosophy of existentialism

This concept from the perspective of existentialism - is an end in itself, but the staff in this regard - but a means to enable the material existence of its constituent individuals.This society is intended to make available free spiritual development of each individual, guaranteeing legal order with respect to encroachments on its freedom.However, the role of society is inherently negative, and the freedom offered by the individual, serves a particular expression (freedom of political, economic, etc.).

representatives of this philosophy believed that true freedom is comprehensible only in the spiritual aspect (the opposite social), where individuals are regarded as existence, and not the subjects of legal relations.

central problem of personality in the philosophy of existentialism - alienated her from the society, which is understood as the transformation of food activity of the individual as an independent hostile force, as well as opposition to the state the individual and the whole organization of labor, public institutions, other members of society, and so on. N.

Especially this philosophy deeply explores subjective experiences regarding the alienation of the individual from the outside world (for example, a sense of apathy, indifference, loneliness, fear, etc.).

According to existentialists, man unwittingly placed in this strange world for him, to a certain fate.In this regard, the individual is constantly concerned with issues relating to the meaning of his life, the reasons for the existence of niches in the world, the choice of the way, and so on. D.

Despite exaggerated spirituality of man (irrational), existentialism has made a significant contribution to the development of various philosophical approachesin which a person perceives as a person, aimed at identifying the human essence.

problem of personality in the philosophy of existentialism is reflected in the modern aspect of the issue.It contains the so-called excesses, but that does not stop her from bringing a valuable contribution to a particular perception of the individual and society.The philosophy of existentialism through its principles pointed to the need for a thorough review of current established values, which guide the society and the people as a person.

right as a measure of freedom and personal responsibility

It acts as the official measure of the existing freedom, its pointer boundaries is necessary and possible, as well as the norm.In addition, the law - the guarantor of the consideration of freedom, it means the defense and protection.In view of the fact that it is a legitimate scale law can objectively reflect the current level of social development.In this sense, the category under consideration - a measure of progress.The consequence of this is the conclusion that the right - this is a measure of freedom as a product development, and a measure of social responsibility type.

German philosopher F. Hegel saw it as real existence of concepts such as freedom and responsibility of the individual.Also known Kant's position as to what the right - is the realm of freedom designed to ensure the autonomy of the outer individual personality.Only the greatest Russian writer Leo Tolstoy believed against all odds that the right - violence against the person.

existing law - this is the norm of freedom, which is legally recognized by the state and expressed through laws.As has become clear, the main thrust of the legal aspects of freedom - of the individual guard against external and arbitrary action on the part of the authorities and by other citizens.

Summing up the above, we can conclude that the categories such as the rights, freedoms and responsibilities of the individual, closely interrelated: the first is the guarantor of a second by the third.

concept of responsible

They can be characterized as a classical and non-classical.The essence of the first concept - the individual is responsible for their actions to them.This subject must be free and independent.At this point once again revealed the assertion that the freedom and responsibility of the individual - the concept is closely related.

Viewed entity commits acts must clearly understand the consequences of them.A final key point of the classical concept - the individual must answer for their actions (for example, to the head, the court of his own conscience, and so on. D.).In this case, the subject of the action in favor defendants.

ethics of responsibility - moral component of the act.In this connection stronger statement: "There is no act - no responsibility for it."If there is a situation where the subject is a member of the group, and thus it is impossible to predict the consequences of specific actions, there is a need for a new concept.She became nonclassical concept.In this connection, it is now the subject initially not responsible for their bad actions under the existing institutional framework, and for the successful completion of the case entrusted to him.