bionics slogan: "Nature knows best."What kind of science is that?The very name and the motto enable us to understand what bionics is associated with nature.Many of us are confronted daily with the elements and results of science of bionics, not even knowing about it.
you heard of such a science as bionics?
Biology - popular knowledge, which we introduced at school.For some reason, many believe that bionics - is one of the subsections of biology.In fact, this statement is not entirely accurate.Indeed, in the narrow sense of bionics - the science that studies living organisms.But more often than we used to associate with this teaching something else.Applied bionics - the science that combines biology and technology.
subject and object of bionic research
What is studying bionics?To answer this question, we must consider structural division of doctrine.
biological bionics explores the nature of what it is, do not attempt to interfere.The object of her study are the processes within biological sys
bionics research deals with the study of the principles that have been seen in nature, and based on them creates a theoretical model, later used in the art.
practical (technical) bionics - is the application of theoretical models in practice.That is to say, the practical implementation of a technical nature in the world.
How it all began?
Father bionics called the great Leonardo da Vinci.In the records of this genius can find the first attempts to technical implementation of natural mechanisms.Da Vinci drawings illustrate his desire to create a vehicle capable of moving the wings like a bird in flight.At the time, such ideas were too bold to be in demand.They are forced to attract attention much later.
first who began to apply the principles of bionics in architecture was Antoni Gaudi-and-Kurnet.His name is firmly imprinted in the history of this science.Architectural construction project of the great Gaudi impressed at the time of their construction, and the same enthusiasm they evoke in many years in modern observers.
next, who supported the idea of symbiosis of nature and technology, became Rudolf Steiner.Under his leadership, it began widespread use of bionic principles in the design of buildings.
Adoption of bionics as an independent science took place only in 1960 at a scientific symposium at Daytona.
development of computer technology and mathematical modeling allow modern architects to more quickly and with greater accuracy to embody in architecture and other industries hints of nature.
Natural prototypes technical inventions
The simplest example of the manifestation of science of bionics is the invention of the hinges.Anyone familiar fixture, based on the principle of rotation of one part of the structure around the other.This principle is used sea shells, to manage its two doors and need to open or close them.Pacific giant cockles reach the size of 15-20 cm. The hinge in conjunction principle of their shells easily visible to the naked eye.Smaller representatives of this type is used the same method of fixing the valves.
In everyday life we often use a variety of tweezers.The natural analogue of such a device becomes acute and pincer beak tailed Godwit.These birds use a thin beak, sticking it in the soft soil and pulling out of small beetles, worms and so on.
Many modern instruments and devices equipped with suction cups.For example, they are used to improve the structures of various kitchen appliances legs to prevent them from slipping during operation.It is also equipped with a special suction cups shoes window cleaners high-rise buildings to ensure a safe fixing.This simple device is also borrowed from nature.The frog, with suckers on their feet, an unusually cleverly keeps on smooth and slippery leaves of plants, and octopus are necessary for close contact with their victims.
You can find many such examples.Bionics - this is just the science that helps a person to borrow from the nature of the technical solutions for their inventions.
Who was the first - the nature or the people?
sometimes happens that one or another invention of mankind for a long time, "patented" nature.That is, the inventors, creating something that does not replicate, and come up with the technology itself, or the principle of operation, and then it turns out that the natural environment is already there for a long time, and you can just peek and learn.
This happened with the usual Velcro fastener, which is used by man for fastening clothing.It has been proven that in the structure of bird feathers for coupling between a thin barbules also used hooks, like those that exist in the Velcro.
The structure of the factory chimneys observed analogy with hollow stems of grasses.Longitudinal reinforcement used in the pipes, similar to the sclerenchyma strands in the stem.Steel ring stiffness - interstices.Thin skin on the outside of the stalk - this is an analogue of the spiral reinforcement in the structure of the pipe.Despite the colossal structure similarity, scientists have invented their own just such a method of construction of factory chimneys, and only later saw the identity of the building with natural elements.
Bionics and medicine
Application of bionics in medicine makes it possible to save the lives of many patients.Without stopping, works on creation of artificial organs, which can operate in symbiosis with the human body.
lucky enough to experience first bionic prosthesis Dane Dennis Aabo.He lost half of his hands, but now has the ability to perceive objects on the touch by the invention of physicians.His prosthesis is connected to the nerves affected limb.Sensors artificial fingers are able to collect information about you touch the objects and pass it to the brain.The construction at the moment is not yet finalized, it is very cumbersome, making it difficult to use it in everyday life, but we can already call this technology a real discovery.
All studies in this area is completely based on copying natural processes and mechanisms and their technical performance.This is the medical bionics.Reviews scientists say that soon their works will give the opportunity to change the worn living human organs and instead use mechanical prototypes.It really will be the greatest medical breakthrough.
Bionics in architecture
Architecture and Construction bionics - a special branch of bionic science, whose task becomes an organic reunion of architecture and nature.In recent years, more and more often in the design of modern designs refer to bionic principles borrowed from living organisms.
Today architectural bionics became a separate architectural style.She is born from a simple copy forms, and now the task of this science was to adopt the principles, organizational features and technically they embody.
Sometimes the architectural style called EKOSTIL.This is because the basic rules of bionics - is:
- search for optimal solutions;
- principle of economy of materials;
- principle of maximum environmental friendliness;
- the principle of energy saving.
As you can see, bionics in architecture - is not only impressive form, but also advanced technology to create a structure to meet modern requirements.
architectural characteristics of bionic structures
Based on past experience in architecture and construction, we can say that all human structures are fragile and short-lived if they do not use the laws of nature.Bionic building, in addition to the amazing shapes and bold architectural solutions are resistant, able to withstand natural hazards and disasters.
The exterior of buildings built in this style can be seen by the relief elements, shapes, contours, cleverly copied design engineers with the living, natural objects and brilliantly embodied by architects, builders.
If suddenly at the sight of an architectural object will seem that you are looking at a work of art, with a high probability before you build in the style of bionics.Examples of such designs can be seen in almost all capitals and large technologically advanced cities in the world.
The design of the new millennium
Back in the 90s of the Spanish team of architects was created building project, which is based on a completely new concept.This 300-storey building, whose height exceeds 1200 meters. It is conceived that the movement of the tower will occur with the help of four hundred vertical and horizontal elevators whose speed - 15 m / s.Countries that agreed to sponsor the project, was China.For construction was chosen the most populous city - Shanghai.Implementation of the project will solve the demographic problem in the region.
tower will be completely bionic structure.Architects believe that this is only able to provide strength and durability.The prototype structure is a cypress tree.Architectural composition will not only have a cylindrical shape, like a tree trunk, but also the "roots" - a new kind of bionic foundation.
outer coating of the building - it's plastic and breathable material that simulates the bark of a tree.The air conditioning system of the vertical city will teploreguliruyuschey analogue function of the skin.
According to forecasts of scientists and architects, a building will not remain one of a kind.After the successful implementation of the number of buildings in the bionic architecture of the planet will increase.
Bionic buildings around us
Which famous creations was used science bionics?Examples of such structures is easy to find.Get at least the process of creating the Eiffel Tower.For a long time there were rumors that the 300-meter-high symbol of France constructed by the Arab engineer drawings unknown.Later, it was revealed complete analogy with the structure of the human tibia.
Besides the Eiffel Tower in the world you can find many examples of bionic structures:
- Sydney Opera House was constructed by analogy with the lotus flower.
- Beijing National Opera House - an imitation of a water droplet.
- swimming complex in Beijing.Externally repeating crystalline structure of the lattice of water.Amazing design solution combines design and a useful opportunity to accumulate the energy of the sun and in the future to use it to supply all electrical appliances operating in the building.
- Skyscraper "Aqua" looks like a stream of falling water.Located in Chicago.
- House founder of architectural bionics Antonio Gaudi - is one of the first bionic structures.Until today it has retained its aesthetic value and remains one of the most popular tourist sites in Barcelona.
knowledge necessary for each
Summing up, we can safely say, all that studying bionics important and needed for the development of modern society.Everyone should familiarize themselves with the scientific principles of bionics.Without this it is impossible to science and technological progress in many areas of human activity.Bionics - our future in harmony with nature.