Nowadays it is impossible to imagine a world without English.All intercultural communications are carried out today on this Roman-Germanic language group, so the modern educated person should certainly possess it.But where do you start learning?The answer is obvious - with an introduction to letters and sounds of the alphabet.
Understanding English alphabet
First, you need to define the concept of "alphabet."Alphabet - a stable system of graphic signs, which can be used to transmit sounds and human speech.Such a system of characters is one way of encoding information in the form of written language.At the heart of the alphabet of English is now "dead" Latin language, the progenitor of all the dialects of Romance and Germanic family.In English 26 letters.They are the same part of the Latin language, just called differently and represent slightly different sounds.Among them, respectively, 6 vowels (a, e, i, o, u, y), and 20 consonants (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, z).
English letters and sounds
So, before studying grammatical and syntactical features one of the most popular languages in the world, you must learn English letters and sounds.Table with details to be always at hand.
is important to note that the letters in the tables are located in the right and only the right order on the basis of which are compiled dictionaries, indexes, and so on. D. It is necessary to remember the English sounds and letters in this order.Interesting fact: According to the researchers the most frequent letter in the composition of words is Ee.Antipode of the character, that is very rare letter is Qq.Well-known symbol & amp;not part of the modern English alphabet, but it was not always.Once the ampersand was full letter.
English vowels and sounds make up only a quarter of the alphabet.All vowels 6. The most common of these is E. O and U, on the contrary, it is not used very often.
very effective way to study and memorize the vowels in the first stage of learning English is to prepare the cards.They need to write simple words that begin with those letters, and choose the appropriate image.For example, the letter A starts the word apple (apple), on E - egg (egg), to I - icon (icon) for O - opera (opera) at U - uniform (uniform) on Y - yard (yard).This method of studying the vowels will not only remember the characters themselves and their number in a foreign alphabet, but also to see how they are used in words.
English consonants and sounds - is, in fact, the basis of language and its alphabet.20. According to the letter most commonly used letters of the English language - Cc, Hh, Tt.Their opposites are Vv, Xx, Zz.
How to Learn English consonant letters and sounds?Card again help in this case.So, just a word on the letter B - book (book), on C - chicken (chicken), D - dog (the dog), F - fox (fox), G - golf (golf), H - hat (hat), J- jam (jam), K - knife (knife), L - lemon (lemon), M - mask (mask), N - nut (walnut), P - pen (pen), Q - queue (queue), R -rain (rain), S - sweet (candy), T - table (table), V - vase (vase), W - worm (a worm), X - xerox (photocopy), Z - zebra (Zebra).
Features pronunciation of vowels
pronunciation of vowel sounds depends on many factors.First, it is influenced by space characters in the word.Second, neighboring vowels and consonants.Third, in the open or closed syllable is a vowel.There is a universal way to correctly pronounce English letters and sounds.Transcription - this is what you need to address when there are doubts as to how to read or recite a particular word.
So, in an open syllable vowels should be pronounced as they are called in the alphabet ([ei], [i:], [ai], [ou], [u:], [wai]).For example, open syllables are part of such words as: to bake (oven), a stone (the stone), a tube (pipe), type (type), gene (gene), and so on. D.
In some words in a rowcan go two identical vowels.They are read in a special way.For example, the combination oo usually read as [u:] (book, zoo, look, moon, and so on. N.).This rule has an exception: it is two words - blood (blood) and flood (flood) - in the combination of these nouns pronounced oo [a:];in the words of floor (floor) and the door (door) is a combination of letters read [ↄ:].
worth noting that the letter e at the end of words can not be read.In the middle of a word, combined ee this letter is pronounced [e:] (beer, meeting, to seem, to see).
Features pronunciation of consonants
under English sounds and letters in most cases are pronounced the same way as they sound in the alphabet.However, there are combinations of letters to be said really.Thus, one of the most common combinations of letters - th.It gives sound [Ɵ] and is found in words like thing (thing), oath (oath), to think (think), through (through), and so on. D. For the literate pronunciation of the sound you want to place the tip of the tongue between the front teethand try to say the sound "a".
Another common combination of English consonants is gh.If it is located at the end of the word, often gives the sound [f] (to laugh - laugh, thigh - hip, to cough - coughing and so on. N.).Another variant pronunciation of letter combinations - do not read it at all.In such words as taught (the second form of the verb teach - teach), tight (tight), light (bright light), and others.
English letters Cc also has some features of pronunciation.In this case, it all depends on neighboring vowels and consonants.Thus, before a vowel, such as e, i, y, Cc letter is read as [s] (process - a process, price - cost, circus - circus).In all other cases the letter Cc pronounced [k].
Another common combination of letters - ch.It gives the Russian the sound [h] in all the words, except for borrowed.In them, it reads like a Russian [x].
first method of studying English letters and sounds: reading hearing
«How to learn English letters and sounds?" - That is the question that is most often asked by beginners to learn this language.There are many techniques, both modern, using technical innovations and the Internet, and proven effective methods.
Thus, we consider the first of them.This reading aloud simple words in the initial stage of the study, and further more complex lexical units and entire texts.Reading aloud helps memorizing letters and corresponding sounds, as well as helping to set the desired tone.Do not forget, at the initial stage to pronounce the English letters and sounds.Transcription - that is what should always apply.Arrangement in every dictionary, including there is shown how to speak the letter.That is, it is not only words, but also to the alphabet at the beginning of the dictionary.
second method of studying English letters and sounds: their spelling
best way to memorize the foreign letters of the alphabet - to train in their writing.So, if the lesson is conducted in the English language school for teens or in the home for preschool children, the teacher can give their pupils a task that will quickly and interesting to study English letters and sounds.
cards - this is what the child should do.Let each card is the letter of the English alphabet, and write a simple word that begins with that letter.It is recommended to draw the appropriate object to visualize the word and its capital letter.This technique is especially effective for children of primary school and preschool age, because, firstly, they will not be bored in class, and secondly, the association with a picture makes it easy to remember not only the individual letters, but also the whole word as a whole.It is with the preparation of cards can start a lesson "Learn English letters and sounds."
third method of studying English letters and sounds: listening
hearing - at least effective way to remember simple words, their compatibility in the proposal, as well as English letters and sounds.Table with the alphabet and transcription should always be at hand.Listening to recordings to learn foreign languages will quickly adapt to the English language, to adapt to the pace and tone of speech, speaker, and seek to understand each word individually, and not just the meaning of the statements as a whole.When performing tasks on listening or watching a movie, video or listening to the English track is necessary to pay attention to each sound individually, on the accents are placed in words and sentences.Standard task of listening - to listen to the text and choose those statements that correspond to it.The teacher can also ask students to summarize their content heard a monologue or a dialogue and answer the questions provided.
fourth method for the study of English letters and sounds: communicating with a native speaker
English sounds and letters, words, sentence structure and grammar can be studied both in theory and in practice.The best way to quickly learn how to speak a foreign language and to understand the interlocutor - that plunge directly into the environment, that is, communication with the English, American or any other person who speaks this language from birth.It will help to develop the skill of spontaneous monologue speech (without training), that is to correctly apply grammatical rules and structures in the construction of sentences.This ability makes it possible to communicate with foreigners "on equal terms" to build a constructive dialogue and be interesting and educated conversationalist who can competently construct his speech and confidently express their thoughts.
no less important aspect of learning a language is speaking with the correct intonation.Communicating with a native English speaker allows smooth Russian accent and pronunciation to deliver.It is necessary to constantly practice it, because Russian pronunciation is very jarring for foreigners and prevents build dialogue.So
mentioned methods are fundamental in the employment of foreign languages.But we should not, for example, only to read, write, or just listen to learn English sounds and letters.In order to achieve quick results, it is necessary to combine a variety of exercises and work on the program, which will advise the teacher.Only in this case will master English perfectly, but you need to practice every day for at least an hour.