fact, what letter should be written on the site of an unaccented vowel, we learn by examining other forms and words, in which the same large part (prefix, root end, the suffix) of interest to us checked vowel is in this position under the stress.For example: type (check the word "type"), the mountain - the mountain, the mountain, the house (in the table), ground (oatmeal).
What is this article?
general rules that govern the spelling of vowels in the root of the word, has been presented above.However, there are a number of exceptions and special cases.After reading this article, you will get acquainted with the theme of "the spelling of vowels in the root of the word."This will help you avoid mistakes in spelling.Spelling checked, unchecked, and alternating vowels will be discussed in detail by us.
unstressed vowels, which are checked
Writing accented letters in the roots in place any unstressed vowel, as a general rule, established by checking the forms and words with the same root, which au
Examples include: gardens (the garden, the garden), water (water water), swine (pigs), talk (talk, talk), eggs (eggs), young (young, young, very young), varmint (prank), heat (heat, hot).
How not to be checked some unstressed vowels?
In some cases, the general rule governing the spelling of vowels in the root of the word, can not be applied, since the difference in the writing single-root words exist because of the fact that they belong to different languages.Such combinations nepolnoglasnye unstressed la, pa ( cut, the gates, the head, the reins, drag, cloud and others), which are always written with a "but" because of Slavonic origin is the word;such combinations in Russian roots correspond Olo, oro ( short, Gates, head furrow drag ).These words are not subject to the general law governing the spelling of unstressed vowels.Terms of Russian orthography, so have their own exceptions.
unstressed vowels "a" can not check any form of imperfect form, when we deal with the roots of verbs perfect.For example, in the words of late, flood, hoof, swallow trample vowel "o" is checked following cognates: late, treads, two, sip , although there are verbs: late, flooding, forked swallowed.
general rule governing the spelling of vowels in the root of the word, can not be applied to foreign-language concepts as vowel screening and checks they may be relevant to the morphemes of different origin.For example, in the word "accompaniment" -ement - suffix is of French origin and the word "accompany" -irova- German suffix.Compare: "engagement - to engage," "subscription - subscribe" and the word "intelligence" and "intellectuals", formed from the Latin root of the different bases.
choosing what should be written vowel ("a" or "o") in the unstressed position, should not be used to verify the verbs with the suffix -yva- (-iva-) imperfect form.
For example, in the roots of the words "trample", "throw", "silent", "look" to check the corresponding unaccented vowel should be involved in such form and words as "transfer", "throw", "look", "trample", "silence", "see", "silence", but not verbs "to tread", "throw", "consider", "silent", in which there is an alternation of "a" - "o" (absorb - absorb, make -making and so on.).
We must be especially careful when writing words that are present homonymous roots unstressed vowel which is pronounced the same, but is designated in writing different letters.
compare: purity (pure) and frequency (frequent) to rinse (rinse) and caress (weasel), for the time being (until now) and the pair (s), fox (fox) and forests (forest) etc..
After a pair of soft and sibilant consonants the letter "e" is written in accordance with the "o" (in a letter "e"), and with "e".Compare: led (led) and whitewash (White), rustling (rustling), village (rural and villages) and silk (silk), acorns (acorn), pearls (pearls).
not verifiable unstressed vowels accented
There are many words in our language, which is impossible to verify the root vowel accent.In this case, you should memorize the spelling of unstressed vowels in the root of the word.Spelling is defined by the dictionary.Included in this list as a borrowed and original Russian word.Some of them are: antagonism native, steak, badminton hall, Grease, bagpipes, salad, delicatessen range, a demagogue, a blimp, an initiative dependent cannonade, bondage, criminology, hotplate, scrag, holster, waste paper, macaque, charm, glamor, optimism, occasion, eulogy, view, garden, privilege, confusion, clay, utilitarian tunnel Esperanto.
difficult cases of writing vowels in the root
The word "velvet" in the unstressed position after the "x" is written the letter "a" (as well as "velvety", "velvet"), although the word "velvet ribbon" underaccent - the vowel "o" (optional "velvet").In the word "swan" in the second syllable unstressed vowels, to convey the letter "e" correspond to the "I" and "e" for emphasis: swan, swan, winch .In the word "boat", "A" is written without an accent, and the word "boat" for emphasis - "o".
The words "detenok", "baby", "childbirth", "children", etc., Without the stress should be used the letter "e" in accordance with the "e" in a stressed syllable: "children" or, for example,"Childhood," "childless", "children", etc.In the word "child", however, and some colloquial variants, such as "Kindergarten" and "wee" written "and" (in the "little child" - a shock "and").
Unstressed connecting vowels
When one complicated concept connect two or more bases, as well as the formation of words, which are integral parts of the international character of the morpheme is used connecting vowel, which is transmitted by the letters "e" and "o".
After a solid pair of consonants is written "about", and after a sizzling, "c" and soft pair, and "j" using the letter "e", for example: outlook, sound, hay, a voice recorder, an employer, a one-time, Moskvoretsky,hundred-ruble, ninety, old Russian, navigator, public, vacuum cleaner, wet-paint, millennial, sheep, mouse trap, tea, maslosyrovarenny, therapeutic mud.
So as you see, has several nuances of the general rule governing the spelling of unstressed vowels in the root of the word.Spelling connecting vowels, for example - is a special case.
Spelling alternating vowels in the root of the word
In Russian, there are roots, which can not be guided by the general rule in writing on the spot certain unstressed vowels corresponding letters, because it obeys the tradition.We therefore consider separately the spelling of alternating vowels in the root of the word.There are roots of the following, in which there are alternating vowels.
1. With the letters "o" and "a"
mountains Gard.In place of the non-impact here it is written "about", even under the stress we have "a", for example: nagoret, burn, burn, poisoned by fumes, burnt down, tanned, combustible, but: tan, soot, fumes, soot. Exceptions (where "gar" without accent): dross, slag, cinder (with the option cinder) Prigara .
Zor-charge.The rules governing the spelling of unstressed vowels in the root of the word is the following."A" is written in the position of unstressed vowel: summer lightning, dawn, illuminate, glow, illumination, light up, robin (bird) ;under the stress can be "on" and "A": radiant, glow, dawns, Radiant, zorenka, Dawn, Dawn, zoryushka.
CBS-CAS.These roots written "and" Where it should be "a", in other cases - "on": touch, touch, bearing on them, to touch, but touch, touch, touch (unstressed vowel does not occur).
clone clan.Spelling roots of these as follows: "a" is written in the position of unstressed vowel, for example: tilt, bow to bow, bend, bow, deviate, declination, worship ;"o" and "a" - for emphasis: slope bow, inflexible, and prone greet, bow, bow.
crop the park."O" - without the accent in words with a certain value, namely, "to cover the spray, drops": sprinkling (from CROP), sprinkle, sprinkled, sprinkle, sprinkle ;in the words meaning "to cover the spots, small spots" - the letter "a": with marked, krapleny interspersed .Under the stress is written only "but": Krapina, mottle, intersperse, speck, specks, interspersed.
lag-log lodges.Spelling unstressed vowel in the root of the word is as follows: on the site of some unstressed vowels located before the "r" should be used "a" and "o" - before the "w", for example: levy, to express, to make, to assume immediate,decompose, vagina, delay, term, adjective, but: outline, lay, lay, postpone, make, offer, the provisions laid down, verse, sentence, turn-down, Widespread.Under emphasis is always written "about": mortgage, taxes, fake, put, put .The word "canopy", where there is a root "-log-", he does not stand out in the modern language, so written "about" without stress before "r".
poppy-MON-IOC.Spelling roots of the following: before "to" on-site unstressed is written the letter "a", in the words with the following meaning: "immersed in liquid dipping": dunk, dunk, dunk; letter "o" - to those who matter "to become wet": soak, soak, soak, obmokat , in the derivatives of the word "wet" (sputum, mokrovaty, chickweed) and relevant "to drain than-That the surge ": get wet, get wet, blotter, blotter. letter "O" is always written before the "h": Wet, wet, soaked, wet.That in these cases the spelling of vowels in the root.
2. The letters "e" and "i" in the roots
Bles (t, k) -blist-bleschit.The letters "i" and "e" are written in the position of unstressed vowel: to "Art" - "and" the next shock "a", for example: shine, shine, shining, shining, shone resplendent , in other cases - "e ": shines, shine, shining, shiny, baubles, bleschit and others. Under the stress - the" e "and" f ": shine, shine, poblёskivat, sparkling, problёskivat, otblёskivat, sequins .Spelling unstressed vowel of the root word "Bles (t, k) / bleschit / shining so regulated quite definite rule.
weight-vis. The verb" hang "( hanging hanging ) in place unstressed vowel is written," and"derived from it in ( otvisetsya, hang et al.), as well as platformers verbs, in which there is a common part of" -visat ": hang, hang, hang et al. (unstressed: hang, hang); the letter "e" - in such words as sign, post, mounted, suspended, suspended (unstressed: hang, hang, dangling ). That in these cases the spelling of vowels in the root.
After the "h", "g", "w", "w" are not written the letter "s", "th", "I", and therefore "and", "y", "a", for example: farewell, gull, squint miracle stitching fat.
Exceptions: jury brochure pshyut, parasailing, fichu and others. the words of foreign origin.
This rule also does not apply to their own foreign-language names ( Julie Jules et al.), As well as letters and abbreviations slozhnosokraschennye words in which all possible combinations of letters ( Mezhyurbyuro etc.).
Under the stress at the root after sizzling spelled "e (d)" in the pronunciation of the corresponding sound "o", if in a different form of the word, or in the related word is spelled "e" ( yellow - yellowish color, black - Churnet s);"o" is written in the absence of such correlations.Compare:
a) Vyachorka, twine, zhёvany, cheap;
b) artichoke, beet pulp, junk, Jordania.
writing "about" possible in the words that are borrowed, sizzling after being in an unstressed syllable, for example: juggler, jockey, chauvinism, chocolates, driver, Scottish, highway.
after vowels "i"
letters "u" and "i" after the "n" can be written only in their own non-Russian names (surnames, geographical names, etc.).For example: Qianshan, Zurich, Tsyavlovsky, Tsyurupa.
After "n" in the strikes syllable written "about" when pronounced with the sound of "o": base, clatter, clatter.
the root after the "n" is not written, "s" and "and": tsibik, cyanide, civilization, cicada, chicory, cycle, a circus, a quote, a figure and others.
Exceptions: chicken, Roma, Shut up, and tiptoed same root.