What are the winter sports ?Biathlon.Bobsled .Skiing.Ski race.Ski Jumping .Luge .Skeleton .Snowboard .Figure skating

Winter sports could not exist without the snow and ice.Most of them are extremely popular with active lifestyles.It is noteworthy that almost all the winter sports, the list is constantly expanding, included in the competition program of the Olympic Games.Let us consider some of them.

unpredictable race

Mountain Snowboard (freeride) - show how impressive, and so dangerous.The competition takes place is prepared and served by the route.Professionals in this case, note that it is virgin snow - the best surface for the disclosure of all the possibilities of such sports equipment as a mountain snowboarding.For beginners it is better not to tempt fate, because the unfamiliar terrain fraught with many dangers.

International competitions Freeride annually among amateurs and professionals.The sport is divided into the following categories:

  • lightweight freeride.This option is the easiest and safest.Contestants get to the top of the mountain on a lift.The descent is carried out not on the steepest slo
    pes.
  • Backcountry.It differs from the previous in that the athletes themselves back to the top.At the present time is the most popular.
  • Heliboarding.Participants to the mountain gives the helicopter.Dear form of entertainment.In some countries is prohibited.
  • Ketskiing.On top athletes gives a special machine (snowcat).Cheaper than helibording.
  • Snoumotorbording.The principle of water skis, but instead of water - snow, but instead the boat - snowmobile.

If you want to try themselves in this sport but you will need snowboard avalanche probe and shovel, beeper, portable radio, a safety helmet, as well as a means of escape in the event of contact with the avalanche.

sleds for adult

Skeleton - the game that runs at high speed.This sport is called in the same way as the main shell.Skeleton - is a kind of a weighted sled runners and frame made of steel.Athlete imposed upon them in the direction of movement.Management is carried out using special spikes on the shoes.

first contest took place in the distant 1890 in Innsbruck (Austria).During the winter sports competitions which are held in the Olympic Games, it was later included and skeleton.This happened in 1928.The first Olympic champion in skeleton Jennison Heaton became the United States of America.It is noteworthy that the silver medal went to his younger brother.

speed sled during acceleration - about forty kilometers per hour.Maximum - 130 km / h.When compared with bobsleigh and tobogganing, skeleton is very dangerous.The slightest violation of the rules can lead to a fatal tragedy.

total weight of the projectile and the athlete should not exceed 115 kilograms for men and 92 - for women.If necessary, be allowed a special sled weighting ballast.

Luge Athletes compete in the downhill on the prepared track.They are located in a single or double sledge on his back, feet first.To manage the changing position of the body shell.

Laurels winner gets to those who most quickly will be at the finish line.If a competitor finishes apart from the sled, he is disqualified.In the fall to stop the projectile may be, placement in a sleigh, and continued the descent.

device sled and weight specified in the regulations.Certain restrictions are imposed on the outfitting of the athletes and their weight.During the preliminary competition set the starting order.

competitions can be held on natural and artificial slopes.Recent specifically designed for competitions.Luge is very popular in the Alpine countries.There also are all natural and most artificial slopes.

Ski track calls

ski races are held on a specially prepared track.The competition involved a person of a certain category - sex, age, and so on. N. The first event in the sport were held in 1767 in Norway.Example soon followed by Norwegian Finns and Swedes.Then ski racing craze swept Central Europe.For two thousand, there were a little less than one hundred national federations skiing.

Cross-country skiing can take place both in classical and freestyle riding.Let us consider them in more detail:

  • Classic option involves moving a skier on the preformed track consisting of two parallel lines.Standard ski courses are divided into alternate and simultaneous (classification, as you might guess, based on the method of repulsion sticks).The number of steps in one cycle defines besshazhny, chetyrehshazhny or dvuhshazhny move.The most common variant of the latter.This method of movement helps to achieve the maximum speed on the flat and shallow areas (slope - no more than two degrees, or no more than five at excellent sliding and lifting the average steepness).
  • Free style involves a free skier.The athlete chooses the optimal variant of movement at a distance.This style is called an analogue of skating.Professionals prefer simultaneous odnoshazhny skating move either simultaneously dvuhshazhny.

list and briefly describe the standard types of cross-country skiing:

  • Match with separate start.Skiers start in a certain sequence and at a set interval.Typically, this thirty seconds, or less than 1 minute 15 seconds.Consistency helps to determine the draw, or the current position of the athletes in the ranking.The strongest start last.In calculating the final result of the finish time of each skier consuming start.
  • Mass start.All athletes start competing at the same time.The most favorable place went to the skiers, who proved to be better than all the previous stages of the competition.
  • Pursuit.This kind of race is a combined event, including several stages.Results of previous competitions determine the starting position of skiers.Usually Pursuit takes place in two stages, one of which participants run freestyle, and the other - a classic.Such races are carried out either in two days or at intervals of several hours.
  • Relay competition involve teams of four skiers.The contest is held in four stages.It begins with a mass start.A method of transmitting relay - touch palm partner, both athletes should be in a particular area (place hand-over).
  • individual sprint.The competition starts with the separate start.It is the qualification.Thereafter, skiers compete in the sprint.Before the final races, as a rule, income is not more than thirty athletes.Comes the turn of the quarter-finals, semi-finals and then, and then - in the finals and A.
  • Team Sprint is a baton.Each team two athletes.Running three to six laps tracks, they follow each other in turn.If a lot of teams are held semi-finals (two).

At official competitions length distance can be from eight meters to fifty kilometers.

leap into the unknown

Winter sports include ski jumping with a pre-equipped with jumps.Such competition may be included in the Nordic Combined, or held separately.

This sport has come to us from Norway.In this country a long time competing in the slalom - riding from the mountains.It is included in the Winter Olympics.Sports, which will compete for the coveted medal, jumping from a springboard semidesyatimetrovogo joined in 1924.The participants of this competition then and now can be only male athletes.

Currently jumping can be performed in both summer and winter.The most significant are the starts, which are held in the winter season on devyanostometrovyh (and above) jumps.

talk about the technique of the sport.The basic elements - acceleration, leaving the table separation, phase of flight, landing.An important role is played by the ability of the athlete properly coordinate their movements.In

flight phase leg of the skier are on the same plane.On the landing stage lower limbs have to take the position, which is called raznozhkoy (telemark).To do this, one leg exposed forward, the other is retracted, both bent at the knees.Placed his hands are placed wider than shoulders.Ski at this point should be as close together and are parallel to each other.The successful landing provide the perfect balance and high motor coordination.When performing incorrect raznozhki athlete loses precious points.Judges carefully evaluate landing skier.Touching the surface of the mountain any part of the body, unnecessary movements, loss of balance, falling - all this is fraught with deductions.It is noteworthy that, if the athlete fell for a special feature, it does not affect the overall result.

jumping technique is assessed five judges.The maximum possible score - twenty.To this amount is added scores for the jump distance (calculated at a special table).

Run fast, shoot accurately

you are interested in a sport like biathlon?We describe the basic rules of the competition and the individual steps of this exciting action.

  • individual race.Biathlon sprang from that type of competition.It is the oldest discipline.Skiers come to start with the difference in 30-60 seconds.The length of the course - twenty kilometers, elevation - from 600 to 750 meters.Each athlete is carrying twenty rounds of small-caliber rifle and a weight of about three and a half kilograms.The challenge is to overcome skiers four firing lines (each with five targets).Shooting is consistently permitted position - lying or standing.Milestones are located between the third and seventeenth-a-half kilometers, the interval is usually three kilometers.Skier free to choose their own target.The distance between the athlete and the goal - fifty meters.If there has been hit, the target is automatically locked disc white.Slip entails a penalty minutes.Diameter of a target for shooting in the prone position is forty-five millimeters in a standing position - one hundred and fifteen millimeters.

  • Sprint.The length of the course - ten kilometers, elevation - three hundred, four hundred and fifty meters.The time interval between the start of athletes is the same as in the individual race, - thirty to sixty seconds.First shooting range is located three kilometers after the start (allowed only to shoot lying down), the second - seven kilometers (athletes hit the target while standing).The penalty for every miss - long penalty loop of 150 meters.To overcome it, a skier spends typically 20-25 seconds.The strongest athletes come to the finish line in twenty-four minutes (if you do not earn the penalty loops).The distance for women is seven and a half kilometers.Firing line are two and a half and five kilometers after the start.The rest of the differences from the men's sprint there.
  • relay race fans considered the most spectacular in the biathlon.Teams formed of four athletes.The competition begins with a mass start.The distance that must be overcome each biathlete, is seven and a half kilometers.Firing line two.In the first shot while standing on the second - lying.On each target is given by eight bullets, five of which are already in the store, and the remaining charged manually as the need arises.One slip - one penalty at one hundred and fifty meters.Overcoming his distance skier passes the baton to the next member of their team.The most experienced biathletes show a team result, thirty kilometers in eighty minutes.
  • Pursuit (Pursuit).This kind of competition for the first time entered the program of the championship and the World Cup in 1996.Starts sixty biathletes.The race usually takes no more than half an hour.This allows the competitions of this type successfully fit into a grid of television broadcasts.The order of the participants and the intervals determined by the results of the sprint race.Competitions unpredictable because leaders often follow each other because of inaccurate results in the goal.The distance for male athletes is twelve and a half kilometers.Women cover the distance of ten kilometers.In the first two shooting range firing lying down on the last two - standing.For skiers, confident shooting in a horizontal position, have a chance to get ahead at the start of the match.Athletes accurately hit the target standing, have the opportunity to take a leading position at the finish.Accuracy in this case is the key to successful performances can not be said about the sprint, where annoying mistakes can be compensated speed.The penalty for misses the target standard - one hundred and fifty meter penalty.Since 2002 Pursuit included in winter sports, for which you can get a medal at the Olympics.
  • Mass Start involves twenty-seven athletes who have shown themselves better than the rest of the World Cup.Terms of contests similar to the individual race.An exception is the length of the distance (it is shorter) and the situation with the shooting (lying, lying down, standing, standing).

Speed ​​sled

descent from the mountain at high speed on beans on a specially equipped for this track - an Olympic sport.Bob is originally from Switzerland.In 1888, Wilson, Smith got the idea to connect two pairs of high-speed sled to travel from St. Moritz to Celerina, geographically located slightly lower.Education the world's first bobsled club had at the end of the nineteenth century.At the same time the basic rules have been developed.It is noteworthy that the crew of the sled was then a team of five athletes - two women and three men.

All sledge bobsleigh produced on a single project - an all-metal body, streamlined shape, two pairs of skates-runners (mobile front, is produced with the help of her management; back is fixed, is responsible for the inhibition).

Currently, the competition used double and quadruple bobsled.The "two" are: weight - no more than one hundred and sixty-five kilograms, length - no more than 2.7 meters."Quartet" should be no longer than 3.8 meters and no heavier than two hundred and thirty kilograms.

What is the bobsled?This icy trough located on a reinforced concrete base, designed with numerous bends and turns.The total route length can vary from a half to two kilometers.The difference in height - from 130 to 150 meters.During the descent sleds reach speeds of 150 kilometers per hour.

Dancing on Ice

Figure skating is a movement of athletes on skates on the ice surface.Thus the music performed by the additional elements.The official competitions decided to play four sets of medals.Thus, athletes compete in figure skating in pairs (male and female separately), as well as in ice dancing.

oldest skates, which are currently known to have been made in the Bronze Age.They are found on one of the shores of the Southern Bug (near Odessa).For their production used a phalanx forelimbs of horses.The first railways were skating in Holland.This country is the birthplace of figure skating.But basic shapes were designed in the UK.First-class international competition was held in Vienna in 1882.

Figure skating has been extended to the territory of Russia under Peter the First.The first skates were brought into the country it is.In addition, he invented a unique moment in the way of fastening the skates directly to his boots.The first public skating rink was opened in 1865 in the Yusupov Garden (street. Garden).

How many winter sports in the future or to appear in Russia, skates did not hand over their positions.People young and old stood on skates every weekend.Inability to stay on the ice even considered shameful fact.

Ski track calls!