Many men reaching middle age, can boast that his whole life had never visited a doctor.Among the fair sex such cases much less.This is due to the fact that the genitals of women in need of constant attention, venereal diseases affect them much more often.After several years of trouble-free life of a man yet decided on rectal examination, which is often compared with the end of youth.Moreover, the stronger sex, as a rule, do not attach particular importance to the visit to the specialist.However, it is a belated visit often ends with the fact that men are diagnosed quite serious ailments requiring competent treatment.One of these diseases is quite dangerous testicular cancer.Photos of this disease can be found in specialized medical reference books.For more details about it, and we will cover in this article.
Testicular cancer - a relatively rare disease.The main causes of this disease in adult men include cryptorchidism, disturbances at the level of the endocrine system, the eff
The statistics of cancer signs of testicular cancer in men diagnosed no more than 2% of cases.It is important to note that the disease is characterized by aggressiveness.Among the representatives of the stronger sex under the age of 35 years, this disease often causes early death.
a third of cases the primary symptoms are diagnosed in young boys.In 90% of them the reason lies in the malignant transformation of benign tumors - teratoma.She, in turn, appears as a result of developmental disorders in utero.
Testicular cancer: causes
Today, the exact causes of this type of pathology, like other cancers, is unknown.However, experts agree on a consensus about the main factors causing the disease - cryptorchidism.It is a special condition where during fetal development or in the first few months of life the testicle does not descend into the scrotum.It simply remains to so-called inguinal canal or even in the abdominal cavity.Most often diagnosed in the oncology patients who have localized the egg directly into the abdominal cavity.
Who is at risk?
According to experts, even if the child was a child carried corrective surgery, testicular cancer in men as adults can still be diagnosed.Among the main factors precursors that increase the risk of developing this disease, called the following:
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Klinefelter syndrome (loss of sex chromosomes at the genetic level).
- underdevelopment of genitals.
- Inclusion of scar tissue in the testes to the inherent level.
- Continuous mechanical impact.
main symptoms of testicular cancer in men following:
- little seal in the affected area;
- accumulation of fluid in the scrotum;
- constant discomfort, pain;
- increase in the size of the usual eggs.
At the beginning of the disease symptoms of testicular cancer in men is almost completely absent.The patient then detects one of them a small seal.The body begins to rapidly increase in size, there is discomfort and even pain.It is important to note that the cancer itself is rarely causes pain.It occurs only when the tumor completely capture the spermatic cord.
In the next stage of development of the pathology observed deformation of eggs and increase their density.Due to the constant accumulation of fluid damaged part of the scrotum begins to increase in size.If the testicle has not descended, the tumor can be easily probe directly into the inguinal canal.Otherwise, the localization of it in the abdominal area of the tumor can grow to considerable size.There are cases where it occupied about half of the cavity.
Further symptoms of testicular cancer in men are associated with the formation of metastases.First of all, shortness of breath, severe pain in the back and groin, discomfort in the leg swelling.These clinical signs are very easy to explain.
For example, back pain associated with a permanent compression of nerve roots retroperitoneal lymph nodes, which also increase in size.Swelling of the feet are due to metastases overlap the inferior vena cava.Symptoms of testicular cancer in men can include even the manifestations of renal failure.This is due to compression of the ureter neoplasm.
Some forms of the disease involve changes in hormone levels.In adult patients, they occur in the form of impotence and reduction in libido.The boys in their teens may develop gynecomastia, hirsutism (excessive hairiness covers), mutation of the voice.
testicular tumors can be of two types:
- Germinogennye (grow from the epithelium) - seminoma, teratoblastoma, horionepitelioma.
- Negerminogennye (developing major tissues) - leydigoma, sarcoma, sertolioma.
germ cell variant of the tumor (seminoma) is the most common.Seminoma diagnosed in 50% of men suffering from cancer.This tumor is formed in a compacted nodule.As a rule it grows fairly slowly and is not accompanied by bleeding complications.Metastases of seminomas mostly affect the lungs, lymph nodes and bones.
stages of cancer are currently in several stages of the disease.Because of this separation is possible for doctors as accurately classify testicular cancer in men, and after - the appropriate treatment.
- first stage.The neoplasm is in the testicle does not go beyond it, there are no metastases.
- second stage.Metastatic tumors are localized in the retroperitoneal nodes.
- third and fourth stages.Metastases penetrate to distant organs or lymph nodes.
There are other International Classification of Diseases - TNM, according to which the main parameters of a specific cancer are identified by the letter (T - the characteristics of the tumor, N - description of the lymph nodes, M0 - no metastases M1 - the presence of distant metastases).
For successful treatment of this disease is very important to diagnose it in a timely manner.How to identify testicular cancer?
- Physical examination of the patient, including palpation of the scrotum.
- Laboratory studies (LDH, BHG, AFP).Based on the level of concentration of so-called tumor markers doctor assesses the effectiveness of current treatments, as well as forecasts for the disease.
- Research scrotum through transillumination.This method implies a translucence of the affected area by a narrow beam of light.The doctor assesses whether it is illuminated uniformly.If the scrotal tissue almost does not transmit light, we can talk about the presence of cancer.
- radiography to detect the presence of metastases.
- Ultrasonography of the scrotum and the pelvic organs.
- CT of the chest and abdomen.
- Bone scintigraphy of bones.
The final diagnosis is established based on the results of the biopsy tissue of the testis.Analysis of biopsy under a microscope allows you to accurately determine the specific type of tumor, as well as to predict the rate of spread of disease.
How to recognize the disease on their own?
First of all it is recommended to see what it looks like testicular cancer in men.Photos affected organs are available in the specialized directories.Thus, if there is any abnormality the patient should seek immediate medical advice.
is important to note that healthy eggs should be about the same size, but one always hangs lower than the other.Otherwise, the man could not put your feet together.
Doctors advise to examine themselves monthly and in a warm room.The thing is that the cold scrotum shrinks strongly enough.The ideal situation is considered to inspection during the shower.Testicles feels should remind cooked hard-boiled eggs, and the size to be about 4 cm in diameter.Government should not hurt.Any discomfort during the inspection can be interpreted as a departure from the norm.
What is testicular cancer?Feeling the rear upper part of the body, you can easily find it an appendage - a thin cord.Any weight attached to it, may be regarded as a tumor (usually benign).In any case, when it detects any deviation from the norm should immediately consult a doctor.He will appoint an additional diagnostic testing, and then, if necessary - treatment.
It is in this disease is complex and involves the removal of a tumor focus, curative resection of lymph node and systemic chemotherapeutic effect on all atypical cells.
Surgical treatment is the complete removal of the affected area with the appendage.If, during operation in the peritoneal metastases space held retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
After surgery, the patient is sent to chemotherapy.It includes an introduction by intravenous injection, and the use of special drugs ("Iofosfamid", "Cisplatin", "Vinblastine") that affects the entire body.Taking into account the fact that the cancer cells have a high metabolic rate, especially immediately destroyed themselves.
In some cases, it is recommended further radiation exposure.For large size of the tumor, this method of treatment used in the preoperative stage.
The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the more effective the treatment will be and substantially increase the likelihood of a positive outcome of the disease.According to experts, timely treatment allows the patient to live for five years or more (90%).When metastasis survival rate is reduced to 72%.