For decades, adopting in 1963 the installation "Grad" had no equal in his fighting qualities, simplicity and reliability - the main indicators of the traditional Russian weapons.Despite the further development of the concept of a multilateral missile artillery, manifested in the appearance of "Uragan" and "Smerch", it remains the most widespread in the Soviet Army, and in the former Soviet Union after its collapse, and far beyond its borders.However, time is relentless, as the progress in the field of military technology.In place of the usual BM-21, soon to be replaced by a system of volley fire "Tornado".Features of the new model outperform "Gradovsky", but the amount, which will cost re, too, is impressive.How justified such a measure to increase the defense capability of Russia?This question requires a detailed answer.
MLRS as a weapon
About Katyushas, mortars Guards famous, everyone knows, at least in our country.Its formidable character they showed in the summer of 1941 and throughout the w
Russia - the birthplace of rocket launchers.They were so effective kind of weapons that now even discussed the issue of recognition of their weapons of mass destruction, and some countries refuse to use them.Whether it comes to international treaties to limit the number of MLRS is unknown.Most likely, the probability of this event is unlikely.The fact is that despite the great progress in this area by the Soviet designers, rest on our laurels today their Russian counterparts do not have.And in the West and in the East undertaken unsuccessfully attempts to create weapons for use "on the area."The new system of volley fire "Tornado" should be a response to attempts to bypass Russia in the matter in which it has traditionally been considered a leader.
MLRS as a kind of arms have a number of drawbacks, one of which (and probably most important) is their visibility during shooting.The noise of rocket engines and pillars of smoke unmask battery.Out of this, two problems.You can make "maneuver wheels" and quickly leave the position in order to avoid retaliation or provide sufficient invulnerability firing range.That is the second way are trying to achieve impunity for Western designers.Foreign top MRLS in range as follows:
1. WS-2D (PRC) - 200 km.
2. M270 MLRS (USA) - 140-300 km, with a standard projectile - 40 km.
3. Lynx (Israel) - up to 150 km.
4. Astros-II (Brazil) - 90 km.
5. LARS-2 (Germany) - 25 km.
6. Type 75 (Japan) - 15 km.
Chinese MLRS salvo at a record distance and has the highest caliber projectile (425 mm).
How successful will in the case of direct fire duel with foreign adversaries multiple launch rocket systems "Tornado"?Features it is not much higher than those of the well-known "Castle", at least at first glance.However, not all so simple, the distance of the shot depends on the type of projectile.
simple comparison of numbers does not explain much.First, currently in service with the Russian Army is only one modification - "Tornado-G."Multiple rocket launchers of the type designed for use 122mm rockets, but apart from that there are other MLRS with codes "U" (220 mm) and "C" (300 mm).All three samples have a high degree of flexibility, allowing use as a standard ammunition for the "Grad", "Hurricane" and "Smerch" and special, with two and a half times the distance.And this is something else.
multiple launch rocket systems "Tornado" is a modular construction, mounted on four-wheel drive all terrain BAZ-6950.Modification of "C" is equipped with two blocks of six shafts, and "G" - pyatnadtsatistvolnymi also two.This is the machine 2B17, but for its effective use in the division need something else.The loading is carried out by special transporters (TPM), fire control being complex "Skit-BM".The main system that provides guaranteed cover goal is AGFCS (automated control system, guidance and fire) "Success-P."It is thanks to her multiple launch rocket systems "Tornado" with a crew of two people can just fifty seconds after the detection of the target or information about her to open fire.
Traditionally MLRS firing Nursi, that is unguided.This achieves the main advantage of these weapons - cheap and mass destruction.But this economy turns around high dispersion, because inherently Nursi is not much different from their ancient Chinese ancestors.There are peculiar norms, according to which at a distance of 100 kilometnovoy allowed 200-meter deviation.A somewhat different approach showed creators NWD "Tornado-G."The system salvo has ammunition shells with individual targeting, capable of limited change trajectory, getting to the point of ensuring that require special accuracy (for example, in a tank or a strong point of defense).Correct fire UAVs or satellite navigation.
Given the rapid unmasking MLRS after the first run, it was necessary to provide for the possibility of instant evacuation equipment and calculation.The system of volley fire "Tornado" can start moving back when shells fired by her, did not reach the target and are in flight, as the guidance system provides accuracy that ensures a low probability of need for restarting.
Terrain chassis allows moving on the highway at a speed of 85 km / h.Cross-country course, it moves slower, but mobility is sufficient to leave the area retaliatory destruction.Only half a minute is required in order to prepare for the next volley of "Tornado".Multiple rocket launchers, the performance characteristics which are significantly higher than indicators and parameters of the "Castle", also has a higher degree of invulnerability and stealth.
general public aware that currently a part of the 8th Artillery Regiment separate MRL, stationed in the Crimea, composed several pieces of modern art.The first division, to get these systems became the 944 th Guards, located in Volgograd.Total Russian Army has several dozens (known for certain about thirty-six) "Tornado-G."Multiple rocket launchers supplied to military units in which there is a planned replacement of "Grad", "Twister" and "Hurricane" of high-tech innovation.The same occurs gradually retrain personnel, who will master modern guidance systems and fire control work coherence and exchange of information flows in conditions close to the fighting.At the same time it continues to work on improving the design of the MLRS.In particular, to improve the accuracy in the short term it is planned to use special intelligence missiles capable of hover and adjust the parameters of firing in automatic mode.It is also possible remote antitank and antipersonnel mining area with rockets "Tornado".A promising area of work experts believe the use of plants to launch guided missiles, including cruise, indicating a high degree of universality of the new MRL.