The tectonic structure of the West Siberian Plain.

West Siberian Plain belongs to the accumulative type and is one of the largest lowland plains of the planet.Geographically, it belongs to the West-Siberian plate.On its territory there are regions of the Russian Federation and the northern part of Kazakhstan.The tectonic structure of the West Siberian Plain mixed and diverse.

tectonic structures

Russia Russia is on the territory of Eurasia, the largest continent on the planet, which includes two of the world - Europe and Asia. Splits cardinal tectonic structure of the Ural Mountains.Map allows visualize the geological structure of the country.Tectonic zoning divides the territory of Russia for geological features such as platform and folded regions.The geological structure is directly related to surface topography.Tectonic structures and landforms depend on to what region they belong to.

Within Russia there are several geological regions.The tectonic structure of Russia presented platforms and mountain fold belt systems.On the territory of the

country almost all areas have undergone a process of folding.

major platforms within the territory of the country are East European, Siberian, West Siberian, Pechora and Scythian.They, in turn, are divided on the plateau, and lowland plains.

The structure of folded belts involved Ural-Mongolian, the Mediterranean and the Pacific.Mountain systems on the territory of Russia - the Greater Caucasus, Altai, the Western and Eastern Sayan Mountains, the Verkhoyansk Range, the Ural Mountains, Ridge Range, Sikhote-Alin.Can tell about how they were formed, stratigraphic table.

tectonic structure, the shape of the relief on the territory of Russia is extremely complex and diverse in terms of morphology, geomorphology, origin and orography.

Geological structure of Russian

That position of lithospheric plates, which is observed today - is the result of complex long geological development.Within the lithosphere allocated large tracts of land that are different from each other by different composition of rocks, their occurrence and geological processes.During the geotectonic zoning pay attention to the degree of change in rock composition of the basement rocks and sedimentary cover, the intensity of the movements of the foundation.The territory of Russia is divided into folded regions and areas epi-platformal activation.Geotectonic zoning covers all tectonic structures.Table includes data on the stratigraphy of modern geotectonics Russia.

landforms formed due to deep movements and external influences.A special role is played by the river.In the process of their life are formed river valleys and ravines.Landforms and glaciation forms.As a result of glacier activity in the plains there are hills and ridges.The shape of the relief even affect permafrost.The result of freezing and thawing of groundwater is the process of subsidence.

Siberian Precambrian platform is an ancient structure.In the central part of it is the area of ​​the Karelian folding in the west and south-west was formed Baikal folded.In the area of ​​the West-Siberian and Siberian lowlands has spread Hercynian folding.

Relief

Western Siberia Western Siberia steps plunges from south to north.The relief of the territory is represented by a large variety of forms and complex in origin.One of the important criteria for relief is the difference in absolute elevations.In the West Siberian Plain difference absolute elevations of tens of meters.

The flat terrain and slight elevation changes caused by small amplitude motion of plates.On the periphery of the plain maximum amplitude reaches elevations of 100-150 meters.In the central and northern parts of the amplitude lowering of 100-150 meters.The tectonic structure of the Central Siberian Plateau and the West Siberian Plain in the Late Cenozoic were in relative peace.

geographical structure of the West Siberian Plain

Geographically in the north of the plain is bordered by the Kara Sea, in the south of the border runs along the north of Kazakhstan and it captures a small part, to the west of its control over the Ural Mountains in the east - Central Siberian Plateau.From north to south the length of the plain is about 2,500 km length from east to west varies from 800 to 1900 km.Plain area of ​​about 3 million. Km2.

Relief plain monotonous, almost even-tempered, occasionally relief height reaches 100 meters above sea level.In the western, southern and northern parts of the height it can reach up to 300 meters.Lowering the territory going from south to north. Overall, the tectonic structure of the West Siberian Plain is reflected in the terrain.

the territory of the major rivers flowing plains - Yenisei, Ob, Irtysh, there are lakes and swamps.The climate is continental.

The geological structure of the West Siberian Plain

Location West Siberian Plain is confined to the eponymous Epihercynian plate.Basement rocks are strongly deformed and to Paleozoic time.They are covered with a layer of marine and continental Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments (sandstones, clays, and so forth.) With a thickness of more than 1000 meters.In the hollows of the foundation this power reaches up to 3000-4000 meters.In the southern part of the plain there are the youngest - alluvial-lake sediments in the northern part are more mature - glacial-marine sediments.

tectonic structure of the West Siberian Plain includes a base and a cover.

foundation plate has the form of depression with steep sides to the east and northeast and gentle from the south and west.Blocks are pre-Paleozoic basement, Baikal, Caledonian, and Hercynian time.Dissected the foundation deep fractures of different ages.The biggest faults submeridional - is East Zauralsky and Omsk-Pursky.Map of tectonic structures shows that the surface of the foundation slab has pribortovyh outer zone and the inner region.The entire surface of the foundation is complicated system rises and depressions.

Case interbedded continental and coastal marine sediments capacity of 3,000-4,000 meters and 7,000-8,000 meters south to the north.

Central Siberian Plateau

Central Siberian Plateau is located in the north of Eurasia.It is situated between the West Siberian Plain in the west, the Central Yakut plain on the east, North Siberian Lowland in the north, Baikal region, Transbaikalia and Eastern Sayan Mountains in the south.

tectonic structure of the Central Siberian Plateau is confined to the Siberian platform.The composition of the sediment it corresponds to the period of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, typical for her parodies are stratified intrusions, which consist of traps and basalt covers.

Relief plateau consists of broad plateaus and ridges, at the same time, there are valleys with steep slopes.The average height difference in the relief of 500-700 meters, but there are parts of the plateau, where the absolute mark rises above 1,000 meters, such areas include the Yenisei Ridge and the Angara-Lena plateau.To one of the highest areas of the territory belongs Putorana Plateau, its height is 1701 meters above sea level.

Central Range

main watershed ridge of Kamchatka is the Central Range.Tectonic structure is a mountain range consisting of systems peaks and passes.Range extends from north to south, and its length is 1200 km.In the northern part of it is concentrated a large number of passes, the central part is a large distance between the peaks in the south there is a strong ruggedness of the array, and the asymmetry of the slopes characterize the Central Range.Tectonic structure is reflected in the landscape.It consists of volcanoes, lava plateaus, mountains, glaciated peaks.

Ridge is complicated structures of the lower order, the most striking of them - it Malkinskiy, Kozyrёvsky, Bystrinsky ranges.

highest point belongs Ichinsky and is 3621 meters.Some volcanoes, such as Khuvkhoitun, Alna, Shishelov, sharp hills, exceeding the mark of 2500 meters.

Ural Mountains

Ural Mountains - a mountain range that lies between the East European and West Siberian plains.Length it is more than 2000 km, the width ranges from 40 to 150 km.

tectonic structures of the Ural Mountains belong to the ancient fold system.In the Paleozoic geosyncline and there was lapping sea.Starting with Paleozoic rock formation takes place of the Urals.Main wrinkling occurred in Hercynian period.

intensive folding took place on the eastern slope of the Urals, which was accompanied by deep faults and intrusions release, the size of which reached about 120 km long and 60 km wide.The folds are flattened, inverted, complicated by thrusts.

On the western slope of the folding occurred less intensely.The folds are simple, without thrusts.Intrusions are absent.

pressure from the east created a tectonic structure - Russian platform, the foundation of which prevent the formation of folding. Gradually, in place of the Ural geosyncline folded mountains appeared.

tectonically entire Urals - a complex set of anticlinoria synclinoria and separated each other by deep faults.

Relief Urals is asymmetrical from east to west.The eastern slope drops steeply towards the West Siberian Plain.The gentle western slope smoothly into the East European Plain.The asymmetry caused their activities tectonic structure of the West Siberian Plain.

Baltic Shield

Baltic Shield refers to the north-west of the East European platform, it is the largest projection of its foundation and elevated above sea level.In the northwest border runs with folded structures Caledonia-Scandinavia.In the south and southeast of the shield rocks submerged under cover of sedimentary rocks of the East European Plate.

Geographically shield attached to the south-eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula and Karelia.

The structure of the board involved three segments of different age - Scandinavian South (west), and the Central Kola-Karelian (east).South Scandinavian sector is tied to the south of Sweden and Norway.It consists of the Murmansk block is allocated.

central sector is in Finland and Sweden.It includes the Central Kola block and is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula.

Kola-Karelian sector is on the territory of Russia.It belongs to the most ancient structures of formation.The structure of the Kola-Karelian sector are several tectonic elements: Murmansk, Central Kola, White Sea, Karelia, together they are separated by deep faults.

Kola Peninsula Kola Peninsula

tectonically bound to the north-eastern part of the Baltic shield, composed of rocks of ancient origin - granites and gneisses.

Relief Peninsula adopted especially crystalline shield and reflect the traces of faults and fractures.On the exterior of the peninsula influenced glaciers that flattened tops of the mountains.

Peninsula by the nature of the relief is divided into western and eastern parts.The relief of the eastern part is not as complicated as the West.The mountains of the Kola Peninsula are in the form of pillars - on the mountain tops are flat plateau with steep slopes, are located at the bottom of the lowlands.The plateau cut by deep valleys and gorges.In the western part located Lovozero tundra and Hibiny, tectonic structure refers to the last mountain ranges.

Hibiny

Geographically Hibiny attributed to the central part of the Kola Peninsula, are a major mountain range.The geological age of the array more than 350 million years.Mountain Hibiny - tectonic structure, which is an intrusive body (solidified magma) complex in structure and composition.From a geological point of view, intrusion - is not poured out volcano.Array continues to rise and now, for the year the change of 1-2 cm. As part of the intrusive massif occurs more than 500 kinds of minerals.

In Hibinah not found any of the glacier, but there are traces of ancient ice.Tops plateau-like array, the slopes are steep with lots of snowfields, active avalanches, many mountain lakes.Hibiny relatively low mountains.The very highest point above sea level belongs to the mountain and meets Yudychvumchorr 1200.6 m.