Nature gave man a variety of energy sources: sun, wind, rivers and others.The disadvantage of these generators of free energy is the lack of stability.Therefore, during periods of excess energy is stored in its storage and spending during a temporary downturn.Energy Storage characterized by the following parameters:
- amount of stored energy;
- accumulation and its rate of return;
- specific gravity;
- terms of energy storage;
- cost of manufacturing and maintenance, and others.
Methods systematization drives set.One of the most convenient is the classification of the type of energy used in the drive, and the way its storage and impact.Energy storage devices are classified into the following main types:
accumulation of potential energy
essence of these devices uncomplicated.When lifting cargo accumulation of potential energy by lowering it makes useful work.Design features are dependent on the type of cargo.It may be solid, liquid, or solid
Mechanical Drives kinetic energy
In these devices, the energy stored in the movement of a body.Typically, this oscillatory or translational movement.
kinetic energy in oscillating systems is concentrated in the reciprocating motion of the body.The energy is supplied and consumed meals in time with the movement of the body.The mechanism is rather complicated and capricious in setting.Widely used in mechanical watches.Number of stored energy is usually small and only suitable for the device.
drives, using the energy of the gyroscope
stock kinetic energy is concentrated in a rotating flywheel.The specific energy of the flywheel is much greater than the energy equivalent static load.It is possible in a short time to produce the reception or return of considerable power.Time storage of energy is small, and for most designs is limited to a few hours.Modern technologies allow to increase the storage of energy to a few months.Flywheels are very sensitive to shocks.The energy unit is directly dependent on the speed of its rotation.Therefore, during storage and transfer of energy there is a change of speed of rotation of the flywheel.For loads typically require a constant low speed rotation.
more promising devices are supermahovik.They are made from steel strip, the synthetic fibers or wire.The structure may be solid or have an empty space.If space is available windings of the tape are moved to the periphery of the rotation inertia moment of the flywheel is changed, part of the energy stored in the spring subjected to deformation.In such devices, the speed of rotation is more stable than tselnotelyh structures, and their power consumption is much higher.Furthermore, they are safer.
Modern supermahovik made of Kevlar fiber.They rotate in the vacuum chamber at the magnetic suspension.Able to store energy for several months.
Mechanical drives using the elastic force
This type of device is able to store an enormous energy density.From the mechanical drive it has the highest energy content to devices with dimensions of a few centimeters.Large flywheel with very high speed have a much higher energy consumption, but they are very vulnerable to external factors, and have little time to store energy.
mechanical drives, using the energy of the spring
ability to provide the greatest mechanical power of all classes of energy storage.It is limited only by the tensile strength of the spring.The energy in the compressed spring can be stored for several decades.However, due to permanent deformation in the metal fatigue accumulates and decreases the capacity of the spring.At the same time high quality spring steel under the conditions of operation may operate hundreds of years without noticeable loss of capacity.
spring function can perform any elastic elements.Rubber band, for example, ten times superior to steel products of stored energy per unit mass.But the life of rubber from chemical aging is only a few years.
mechanical drives, using the energy of the compressed gas
In this type of energy storage device is due to compression of the gas.In the presence of an excess of energy by means of gas compressor is injected under pressure into the balloon.As necessary, the compressed gas is used to rotate the turbine or generator.For small facilities should be used instead of the turbine engine piston.The gas in the pressure vessel of hundreds of atmospheres has a high specific energy density for several years, and in the presence of high quality valves - or decades.
accumulation of heat
Most of the territory of our country is located in the northern areas, so much of the energy consumed for heating internally.In connection with this problem solving must regularly heat storage tank and removing it therefrom when necessary.
In most cases, you can not achieve a high density of the stored thermal energy, and any significant terms of its preservation.There is an effective device for a number of its features and high prices are not suitable for widespread use.
Accumulation by the heat capacity
This is one of the most ancient techniques.It is based on the principle of the accumulation of heat energy by heating the substance and impact of heat as it cools.The design of these drives is extremely easy.They can be a piece of any solid or a closed container with a liquid coolant.Storage of thermal energy have a very long life, virtually an unlimited number of cycles of accumulation and output of energy.However, the storage time does not exceed a few days.
electric energy storage
Electrical energy - it is the most comfortable form of the modern world.That is why electric drives are widely used and most developed.Unfortunately, the specific capacitance of cheap small devices and appliances with high specific capacity is too expensive and short-lived.Storage of electrical energy - is capacitors, electric double layer capacitors, batteries.
It is the most popular type of energy storage.Capacitors are capable of operating at a temperature of from -50 to +150 degrees.The number of cycles of accumulation-impact energy - tens of billions per second.Combining several capacitors in parallel, you can easily get the required capacitance value.Furthermore, there are variable capacitors. change in capacitance of the capacitor can be done either mechanically or electrically, or the influence of temperature.The most common variable capacitors can be found in the oscillatory circuit.
Capacitors are divided into two classes - polar and nonpolar.Lifetime polar (electrolytic) than nonpolar, they are more dependent on the external conditions, yet at the same time have a large specific capacitance.
As energy storage capacitors - not very successful instruments.They have a small capacity and a small specific density of the stored energy and its storage time, measured in seconds, minutes, hours rarely.Capacitors have found application mainly in the electronics and power electronics.
Calculation capacitor is usually not difficult.All the necessary information on the different types of capacitors provided in technical handbooks.
These devices occupy an intermediate position between the polar capacitors and batteries.Sometimes referred to as "supercapacitors".Accordingly, they have a huge number of stages of the charge-discharge capacity greater than that of the capacitor, but slightly smaller than that of small accumulators.Time energy storage - up to several weeks.Supercapacitors are very sensitive to temperature.
electrochemical batteries are used if you want to store a lot of energy.It is best suited for this purpose lead-acid appliances.They were invented about 150 years ago.And since then, the device battery is not made anything radically new.There was a lot of specialized models, significantly increased the quality of components, increased the reliability of the battery.It is noteworthy that the battery device created by different manufacturers for a variety of purposes differs only in minor details.
electrochemical batteries are divided into traction and starting.Traction used in electric transport, uninterruptible power supplies, power tools.For such batteries are characterized by a long and uniform discharge most of its depth.Starter batteries can give a large current in a short time, but deep discharge them invalid.
Electrochemical batteries have a limited number of charge-discharge cycles, on average, from 250 to 2000. Even in the absence of operation in a few years they fail.Electrochemical batteries are sensitive to temperature, require a long charging time and strict observance of the rules of operation.
instrument must be recharged.Charge the battery mounted on the vehicle, it made the move from the generator.In the winter, this is not enough, bad cold battery takes charge and power consumption to run the engine increases.It is therefore necessary to carry out an additional battery in a warm room the special charger.One of the significant disadvantages of lead-acid units is their high weight.
batteries for low-power devices
If you need a mobile device with low weight, then choose the following types of batteries: nickel cadmium, lithium ion, metal-hybrid polymer ion.They have a higher specific capacitance, but the cost is much higher.They are used in mobile phones, laptops, cameras and other small devices.Different types of batteries differ in their parameters: the number of charging cycles, storage life, capacity, size and so on. N.
Lithium-ion batteries are used in high-power electric and hybrid cars.They are lightweight, high specific capacity and reliability.At the same time lithium-ion batteries are highly inflammable.Ignition can occur by short circuit, mechanical deformation or destruction of the body, violations of the charge or discharge the battery.Rather difficult to extinguish a fire due to the high activity of lithium.
batteries are the basis for many devices.For example, the energy storage device for the phone - a compact external battery is placed in a rugged, waterproof housing.It allows you to charge or power the cell phone.Powerful mobile energy storage devices capable of charging any digital devices, even laptops.In such devices installed, usually lithium-ion batteries high capacity.Energy Storage for home not do without batteries.But it is much more complex device.In addition to the battery in their composition includes a battery charger, a control system, the inverter.The devices can be used with either a fixed network or from other sources.Power output is on average 5 kW.
drives chemical energy
There are "fuel" and "without fuel" types of drives.They require special techniques and often cumbersome high-tech equipment.Used processes allow to obtain energy in various forms.The thermochemical reactions can take place both at low and at high temperature.Components for high-temperature reactions are introduced only when necessary to obtain energy.Until then they are stored separately in different places.Components for low-temperature reactions are usually in a single vessel.
Energy storage operating time fuel
This method includes two completely independent phases: the accumulation of energy ("charge") and its use ("discharge").Traditional fuel usually has a high specific capacity of energy, the possibility of prolonged storage, ease of use.But life does not stand still.The introduction of new technology places high demands on fuel.The problem is solved by improving existing and creating new, high-energy fuels.
widespread introduction of new models prevents insufficient flue processes, a large fire and explosion hazards in the work, the need for highly qualified personnel, the high cost of technology.
without fuel chemical energy storage
In this kind of drive energy is stored by converting one chemical to another.For example, slaked lime by heating becomes quicklime state.When "defuse" the stored energy is released as heat and gas.That's what happens when hydrated lime water.To start the reaction, usually sufficient to combine components.In essence, this kind of thermochemical reaction, but it flows at a temperature of hundreds or thousands of degrees.Therefore, the equipment used is much more difficult and expensive.