Public goods: examples.

Public goods, examples of which are given below, are the values ​​that are consumed collectively by all citizens.Their use does not depend on paying for public or not.Next, consider the more public goods: the types and characteristics of these values.

General

Private and public goods are significant differences.As mentioned above, second of all citizens collectively.The first available for use and benefit directly to the owner.Private and public goods in question are different, and the commission deals with them.The latter is almost impossible to sell.Public goods and services are used by citizens with a sufficiently great pleasure.However, many individuals refuse to pay their favor.

pure and mixed public goods

There are certain signs, in accordance with which the classification values.So, there is a division between pure and mixed public goods.The first are those that have the attributes neisklyuchaemosti and non-selectivity.The characteristics that are used in the classification can have diff

erent levels of exposure.Thus, for example, two benefits can be characterized by selectivity and neisklyuchaemosti symptoms, but one of them, these characteristics are manifested in a smaller or greater extent.Furthermore, there is a combination of properties and for varying values.

indiscriminate and neisklyuchaemost

Providing pure public goods one individual is impossible without the participation of other citizens.The result is a collective consumption.Every single person uses good benefits.This utility, which is extracted from him the rest of the citizens, not decreasing.No one can be excluded from the number of people who use these public goods.Examples of this include the following: every citizen will benefit from the weather, while not reducing the usefulness of which is taken by others.The same applies to visiting libraries, travel on highways.

General category

following types of benefits:

  • Information.These include "continuous" public goods.Examples: TV, radio.
  • limited use.These benefits are available a certain number of users at one time.These include road bridge during an hour "peak".
  • Local.It is available for members of a particular social group or region of public goods.Examples: regional libraries, parks and squares.
  • Discrete (museum exhibits, paintings in galleries), free (activities strongholds of law and order), negative (higher education courses) and positive (public transport) costs.

to provide public goods necessary to attract private.The volume of the latter limit the total state revenues that are generated, in particular, due to receipt of various fees and taxes.

Mixed blessings

in this category are many subtypes.As was mentioned above, the features inherent benefits, may be present in one or another combination.Thus, non-selectivity can be combined with excludability and vice versa.In this connection we can call still other examples of public values.Are there values ​​that differ neisklyuchaemosti low and high - selectivity.These are called general (for joint use) benefits.These include the free space on the beach.They are available to all citizens.But at the same time if one person takes place on the beach, they will not be able to take advantage of another person.In this connection it receives indications selectivity.As a particular common good in favor of the fact that the restriction of their use is associated with significant costs.Most often, they are available at the local (regional) level.This category includes such examples of public goods: public spaces, parks, parking lots, and others.In this respect, they are also called the "utility".Joint consumption in this case determines the high level of competition in their use.This is the principle of "who came first, and he took advantage."

collective values ​​

Not all clearly understand the existing division.Therefore, many consumers are asking more competent in the matter of citizens: "What are some examples of social benefits for communities."To begin we must say that such values ​​are low degree of selectivity and high neisklyuchaemosti.As one of the most vivid examples to obtain information on the Internet.At the same time this opportunity to have access to a lot of people.The marginal cost of increasing the number of customers at the same time remains zero.This in turn means that the competitive (selectivity) when the consumption of good has a low degree.However, giving it a sign of excludability is not working.This is achieved by charging for Internet connection.As the features of such benefits is the possibility to restrict access to them at a relatively small cost.

Government support

number of public goods is much less than the number of government.Many government benefits are considered excludable or competitive in use, and in some cases have both of these symptoms.It can be said of the provision of secondary education.By increasing the number of students costs are positive.This is due to the fact that the other students in this case will receive less attention because of its larger amount.This is a sign of excludability benefit gains with the introduction of tuition fees.If some of the students will not be able to make it, it will be excluded from the educational process in the classroom.

Specificity demand

need for this or other goods piled up on the basis of the principle of diminishing marginal utility.Due to the fact that the benefits from the use of an additional unit is decreasing, the line of individual demand differs downward slope.Similarly, the demand curve is a pure private good.However, according to resemblance hidden big difference.The first is that the sale of pure public goods "piece" is not possible.This is due to the fact that they are inseparable and are shared by all people.Their consumption - this is not the exclusive right of individuals.These benefits can be used even by those who choose not to pay for them.The unit in this case the value is not assigned, and consumers can use the entire amount of the issue.In other words, a specific amount of time they consume a number of common good.

market mechanism

In some cases, using it may be forced to exclude the financing issue of public goods.In such situations, they are supplied by individual farms.Financing is carried out by means of the market mechanism.It allows us to implement such methods provide, as an exception "free riders" and interdependent subsidies and financing.In the first case, use restrictive measures, deny access to consumption.Due to the low costs in this case, the benefit of even having selectivity, can be sold as well as private.

role of the State Government shall bear the expenses related to the provision of benefits to society as if the positive external effects arising from their use can not be any internalization of this is due to very high costs.Thus, the state can be directly manufacturer.For example, it can be a struggle with the state of emergency or internal security.Also, the authorities may finance the release of goods by the private sector, participating in the construction of schools, hospitals and others.In all cases, while the flow of funds from the state at the expense of tax deducted by the citizens.The solution is the optimum volume of production based on collective action.In granting the state social benefits are not always achieved by the effective volume of their production.Application of the tax mechanism requires the solution of complex problems that are associated with the achievement of the required volume of the issue.