Interdisciplinary research and production complex.

Interdisciplinary Complex - a special integration structure.In the framework of the interaction of different industrial sectors of activities.They focus on the performance of any function with the release and distribution of products.Next, take a closer look, what are the inter-industry complexes.

General

Interbranch complex - a structure that can be configured within a single industry segment.He, in turn, stands out in accordance with the general division of labor.So, within the industry, there are machine-building, fuel and energy, and other cross-sectoral industrial complexes.

largest segments

There are various cross-industry complexes.However, because of them it is the largest.These include, in particular, include:

  • Energy.
  • agriculture.
  • complex industries for the production of chemicals and materials of construction.
  • Engineering.
  • military-industrial complex.

Brief description of the most important sectors

Energy interdisciplinary complex includes an integrated system of oil shal

e, peat, coal, oil, gas industry, heat and electric power sectors, the production of energy and other types of equipment.They share a common goal, to address the needs in fuel, electricity, heat.Agriculture includes a diverse range of interdisciplinary in its focus sectors.In particular, it refers to the food industry, machine building for her, the issue of plant protection products, fertilizers, veterinary drugs.It also contains industries such as agriculture, construction, industrial facilities, including water management and irrigation, a / x-engineering.The main objective of the AIC serves food security of the country.

Classification

Interbranch economic complexes conditionally divided into functional and target.Allocation is based on the latest criteria for participation in the formation of the final product.Also of fundamental importance for their isolation is reproducing principle.This category of target segments include engineering, fuel energy, agribusiness.It also includes the transport of the mineral resource and cross-industry systems.Separation of functional sectors in accordance with the principle of specialization in a particular function.This category includes science and technology, investment and infrastructure facilities.Let us consider the cross-industry complexes in Russia.

Investment sector

This interdisciplinary complex consists of manufacturing, erection of structural materials engineering.The purpose of this sector is the introduction into operation of objects relating to fixed assets.This cross-industry complex is involved in modernization, expansion and raising capacity.It is also carried out within the reconstruction of objects.

complex interdisciplinary scientific

It connected the two sectors.In particular, it includes present science and the labor process itself, providing output.This form is designed to help increase the speed of innovation and the development of effective implementation in practice.This cross-industry complex includes research institutes, technological organizations, design offices and other companies of the orientation.

Energy

This interdisciplinary complex is a complex system of production and generate energy and fuels, transportation, distribution and consumption.Energy development has an impact on the scope, technical and economic indices and dynamic industry.This approach to energy and fuel stands as one of the key requirements for the territorial organization of production.However, from the standpoint of the national economy the existing allocation of resources irrationally.The main consumers of energy occupy the European part of the country, with about 80% of the geological reserves are concentrated in the eastern region.Transport costs contribute to increase the cost of the final product.Energy rayonoobrazuyuschuyu performs the task.In the immediate vicinity of sources developed a strong infrastructure.It favors the development of industry, education and enlargement of the city and nearby towns.However, the share of fuel and energy sector accounts for about 90% of greenhouse gas emissions, half of the total volume of air pollution and 1/3 of hazardous substances poured into water.All this, of course, can not be regarded as a positive effect.

Metallurgy

This interbranch complex sectors involved, in the framework of which the production of various metals.About 90% of them - ferrous (iron alloys obtained based on it).The volume of non-ferrous metal is much more in this regard, companies involved in their production and processing are of great importance for the segments in the economy to ensure the development of scientific and technological revolution.Russia is one of the leading countries in the development of metal ores and smelting.This segment employs about 1.3 million workers concentrated 1/8 of all production capacity.

Chemical forest industry

It is a technologically complex interacting businesses.This chemical plants in this sector are of particular importance.Their role is determined by the wide use of the products they produce.Chemical industry differs vast resource base.It includes:

  • Industrial waste.
  • air.
  • water.
  • Wood.
  • minerals and so on.

the main raw materials are the products of oil refining, coking coal - specifically prepared materials.

Engineering

This complex is not particularly orientation on domestic consumers.Most of the products that is produced in the eastern region, is exported to the European territory of Russia.Requirements as the Far East and Siberia in equipment and machines 70-90% being met by supplies from the western regions at the expense of imports.Placement of enterprises engaged in the machine-building complex, depends on the nature of the production: mass production, the range of latitude, scale unit, industry, general industrial applications.The effectiveness of the distribution is affected by several factors:

  • volume of labor.
  • specialization, combination, cooperation, concentration of production.
  • proximity to sources of raw material.
  • scientific and technological development.
  • volume of transport activities and costs on them.

Military industry

This set includes a plurality of test, research institutions and organizations, as well as enterprises engaged in production of relevant products.Their general activity is aimed at the development, storage, production, setting into service of special and military equipment, ammunition, ammunition and other things.All these products are intended for export or for use by internal power structures of the state.As organizations and institutions, customers may act by representatives of the Ministry of Defense, and other agencies and bodies.These agents influence the decision on the establishment of certain types of weapons, setting requirements specification, a competition among potential perpetrators, the statement re-designed projects.Since January 2008, all procurement in accordance with the decision of the Military-Industrial Commission carried out through the Federal Agency for the supply of material resources, and special military hardware and weapons.