Russia, according to the majority of lawyers - a presidential republic.The bulk of the power is concentrated thus in the hands of the head of state, elected by the people.In fact, by means of what procedures Russians choose their President?What are the requirements for candidates for the highest office?
Presidential elections in Russia: key aspects
Russian Constitution defines the basic mechanism by which the election of the President of the Russian Federation - is by direct universal suffrage of citizens.Interestingly, the main state law says nothing about the alternative (there are several candidates for the post of head of state) elections, but in a number of other regulations, this aspect disclosed sufficiently in detail.
A person can apply for the position of President of the Russian Federation if he is already 35 years old.This is one of the key criteria for candidates.Another important requirement - accommodation in Russia for at least 10 years old at the time of elections.At the same ti
How is the nomination of candidates?A person can be a candidate if it will put forward a group of other citizens or the electoral association.It is also possible to self-promotion.Aspects relating to the requirements for candidates for the highest public office in the Russian Federation, in more detail.
Nomination: the nuances
What are the criteria for the participation of bidders in the presidential election?The procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation includes the following rules regarding this aspect.Candidates for the post of head of the Russian state, as we noted above, can participate in the elections as a way of self, and with the mediation of associations - these are most often the party.
In the first case, a citizen seeking to get their hands on the power of the President of the Russian Federation, although it extends itself, however should get the support of at least 500 of their compatriots.At the same time contender for the post of head of state is required in the proper order to register your "support group" in the CEC.In the second case - when the candidate puts forward the party - this public association must be officially registered in the state registers.Validity of it - at least a year before the presidential election.Interestingly, provided that the candidate is nominated the party, he should not be a member.Public obdeninenie represented in Parliament, can support only one candidate in the presidential election.
In both scenarios - self-nomination or support of the party - a candidate for the post of President of the CEC is obliged to provide a minimum of 1 million signatures.They are expected to approve the corresponding candidacy.The maximum number of signatures in each of the subjects of the federation must not exceed 70 thousand. This requirement candidate can bypass if enlist the support of the party having the existing mandates in the State Duma.
preparation and holding of elections
election of the Russian president appointed upper house of the Federal Assembly.The corresponding decision the authority should take at least 3 months before the intended date of election of the President.If it turns out that for the 35 days prior to election day in the electoral list will not be present 2 candidates, the elections will be postponed for another 60 days.
As a rule, a few months before the expected date of the vote for the head of state in Russia starts election campaign.Candidates seeking to gain the trust of citizens engaged in political advertising, arrange debates are activities that can form their positive image in the eyes of voters.
presidential elections are held on the first Sunday of the month in which the citizens of our country went to the polls last time.The law provides for the possibility that the Council of Federation for whatever reason do not assign them within the required deadlines.In this case, the procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation is that the initiative into the hands of the CEC.This body appoints and holds elections with such a scenario, the second Sunday of the month in which the normal Council of the Federation was to assign the appropriate event.
If a candidate for the post of head of the state received more than 50% of the vote, he immediately becomes elected President.If a simple majority - is assigned to the second round.On the fact of the meeting by the President is a person who receives at least one vote more than his opponent.
terms of office
Term election of the President of the Russian Federation, established by the law, - 6 years.However, his powers cease to be executed as soon as the office comes a new head of state.The law provides for scenarios in which the President may withdraw from office.In this case, the Federation Council is obliged to call early presidential elections.The period in which senators must meet, - 14 days from the date when the President ceases powers.Election Day in this case - the last Sunday before the day of the expiration of 90 days from the moment of departure from the post of head of state.
When the elections failed
procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation admits the case of recognition of the presidential elections invalid.When is this possible?First scenario: You passed the second round, but it was a candidate for one person, and chose less than 50% of citizens.Also, elections could be declared invalid if none of the candidates receives more than half of the votes in the first round.Another option - at the time of elections, all candidates out of the race.Also considering the electoral procedure will be declared invalid if the turnout was less than 50% of registered voters.Consider the features of the actual organization of the second round.
second round of elections
procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation stipulates that the second round of presidential elections held 21 days after the first.Thus, if one of the candidates who have passed to the next stage, decide to stop participating in the elections, it took the man, was the third in the first round.However, the possible scenario where Russian citizens will elect the President in the second stage, with the participation of the candidate.True, it is the second round must score at least 50% of the votes of citizens.Note that under this phase of the reporting requirements for electoral activities turnout there.
When the election invalid
procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation includes a scenario where the elections are considered invalid.It is possible, for example, if the results of the vote appear insufficiently reliable due to violations.Another option - if a significant number of areas (forming a one-quarter or more of the total electorate) election results declared on those or other reasons, invalid.Another scenario - the court annuls the election.
If the presidential election qualify as failed or invalid, as well as if in the second round, both candidates have stopped participating in the contest for the post of the President, the parliament's upper chamber of the Russian Federation carries out the procedure for the re-election of the President.It should poizoyti over the next four months to the day when it was decided to admit the previous elections void.
How many times can become the President?
As we have noted above, the term of election of the President of the Russian Federation - 6 years.One and the same person at the same time can not hold office for more than two corresponding periods in a row.The authorities of the Russian President may again return to the hands of a citizen after his successor will work due time on the job.
30 days after the elections are held the head of the Russian state, and they determined the winner, a procedure of joining the elected President of the Russian Federation in the post.This event is usually broadcast live on state and other TV channels, radio.The gala hall, where the Inauguration, may be attended by representatives of the authorities, political parties, public organizations of Russia and other countries.
During the event, attended by senators of the upper chamber of Parliament, the State Duma and the Russian Constitutional Court judges, the new president takes the oath.After that he can perform his official powers as long as it does not take place, or until a successor people do not re-elect him, in the presence of an appropriate legislative opportunity.
Theses on oath
oath does not bring a person who has served as acting head of state, if the previous stop its powers.At the same time it brings a re-elected President of the Russian Federation - in the same way as he did the previous time.The oath of the head of the Constitutional Court adopts.
procedure in question, provided for in many other countries.In a number of states, as noted by several lawyers, the President shall take office only after being sworn.Such wording, in particular, found in the Constitution of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Many experts believe that a similar norm is present in Russia, based on some of the wording in the Basic Law of our country.Thus, it is believed lawyers, elected President of the Russian Federation could not officially, through a legally correct procedures to take office without taking the oath.Although direct reference to the consequences of a similar nature in the laws of the Russian Federation No.
Rights and obligations of the head of state
What are the basic rights of the President of the Russian Federation upon assuming office?Lawyers These include the following:
- the appointment of the Prime Minister (or the Prime Minister);
- manage the meetings of the Government;
- the appointment of a civil referendum;
- the resignation of the Government.
Along with the rights of the head of the Russian state has responsibilities.Among the key - conducting foreign policy, the introduction of bills in parliament, signing the last procedure for the adoption of legal acts, publishing their own sources - decrees, orders.Note that some lawyers do not distinguish between the rights of the Russian President and his duties, believing that it is enough difficult to determine in this case the necessary criteria.For example, the same edition of the decrees, according to experts, it can be attributed to human.
Financing of elections
What is the procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation in the financial aspect?The bulk of the activities related to the preparation and the practical conduct of the election of the Russian president, is paid at the expense of the federal budget.At the same time, each candidate is required to create their own funds for the additional financing of electoral events.
expend funds under the relevant institutions contenders for the office of President should, following the laws of the country regulated reporting.
counting of votes and publication of results
studying the procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation, a brief look at the aspect of counting of votes and publication of the results of the electoral event.After the polls closed - at 20 o'clock local time, begins, respectively, summing up the election results.The territorial commissions studying bulletins summarize statistics form the records and provide data to the CEC.The results are then summarized in a general document.A considerable amount of problems in this area is achieved by using high-tech resource - state automated system for vote counting and statistical analysis of data.
official publication of electoral events under study, as well as the numbers of votes cast for each candidate shall be carried out within 3 days after the final protocol of the CEC will be made.The data for each of the territorial polling stations are to be printed in the official publications of the CEC within 10 days.As a rule, even before the election results are made public, sociologists report results exit-poll - a survey of voters at the exit from the regional sites allow citizens to get a rough idea about the outcome of the vote.
first task after the elections
examining how takes office as President of the Russian Federation, the procedure of election, the powers of a person chosen by the people, we can see that what is prescribed by the law the first steps the President in terms of solving the problems of political management.The fact that the entry of the President in his office accompanied by some legal consequences pertaining to the structure of government institutions.In particular, dismissed by the members of the Government - such provisions in the law regulating the activities of the supreme executive body.Also, as noted by some experts to be changing, as a rule, the frame structure in the Presidential Administration, and in some cases authorized representatives of the President in the upper house of Parliament in the federal districts of de jure removed from office.
fact, however, members of the relevant units continue to perform their labor functions until they are assigned to other officials and heads of departments or legally retain his position as current employees.Thus, the first elections after the appointment of the President of the Russian Federation relate to positions in government.Sometimes - Administration of the Head of State and a number of other structures of political governance.Does the structure of its Office of the President of the Russian Federation?Among experts there is no consensus on this matter, and the laws of Russia - rules that would be in strict order governed by the principles of rotation of personnel in this organ.Thus, the Office of the President of the Russian Federation - the body that operates independently of the procedures that reflect the election of the head of state.
choice when martial law
consider what, what rights and responsibilities has a President, election and powers of the head of the Russian state, and examine the aspect of carrying out the relevant electoral procedure under martial law.Indeed, if a country for any reason drawn into a kind of international conflict, the population is probably not up to the elections and the presidential race.
Note that in the Basic Law - the Constitution - to say nothing of such cases.While the Federal Law "On Martial Law" noted that in any election authorities, as well as referendums, in appropriate circumstances be held.That is, the president will remain in office for as long as martial law will not be canceled.The term of office of the head of state thus be extended, even if he has worked for 6 years.The same rule, as noted by the lawyers, also applies to other authorities.By the way, in many countries the legislative regime provides similar rules.
Does Russia vice-president?
no such office in the country is not provided.However, there were periods when it was present in the power system.For example, at a time when there was only the institution of the presidency - first in the USSR, and then in the early years after the formation of the Russian Federation.But in the Constitution, which was adopted in 1993, no information on the position of vice-president was not present.As well as in any subsequent amendments to the basic law of the country.Lawyers say that the Vice President is present in the power system of a relatively small number of states.First of all, we can note the development of the corresponding tradition in the United States, some European countries such as Bulgaria or Cyprus.