This machine had a lot of enemies in the early postwar years.Antonov An-2 seemed outdated even then, at the high aviation authorities had their own idea of what should look like modern technology.Biplane with the "blunt" the nose and the braces seemed a relic of the pre-war past, he is reminded of plywood U-2, and it immediately "stuck" insulting nickname "corncob" (as teased a small training airplane provoevavshy all heavy four years at the front).Who knew that this unsightly plane outlive its critics, and for a long time ...
Oleg Antonov engaged in the development of air transport.This topic had come to him on the principle of exclusion.Attack aircraft, bombers and fighters during the war were concerned about the designers who had a wealth of experience in creating military equipment, were the foundation of civil aviation license PS-84 (also known as Li-2, documentation and production equipment have been purchased in the United States in the thirties).Antonov, a young man (3
In 1945 the Soviet government recognized the progressiveness agroobrabotki carried aerosredstvami.Pollination and processing chemicals from aircraft was commonplace in the United States, and all the advanced technology in the post-war chaos were required urgently, the country's food crisis was felt.In addition, a small airplane capable of carrying a dozen passengers or cargo ton or two was necessary and mail, and virtually all sectors of the economy, especially to serve remote areas.Basic requirements for the new machine have formulated in the terms of reference: it must take off from unprepared sites, to be able to operate in a wide climatic range.Its service should not require special technology.And, of course, there must be a reliable and easy operation.All these requirements are quite consistent with the AN-2, the first copy of which took off from Novosibirsk field test in 1947.The idea seven years ago has been applied.
Made in the USSR
In five years, the airplane was made in relatively small (at least for the USSR) numbers, only a few hundred pieces.After the death of the "father of nations" Khrushchev, who led the party and the country has launched an increase in output of this machine.Antonov An-2 fits into the concept of the universal application of chemicals and the development of agriculture, to which set an ambitious goal of "catch up and overtake" the main global rival of the USSR - the United States.Production base was originally Kyiv Aviation Plant № 437. Agriculture-specific modifications to the index "M" was built in the town of Dolgoprudny.To the surprise of Antonov, passengers have become almost the main purpose of the An-2.Technical characteristics of the aircraft did not expect the comfort in flight, and cargo "turbulence" caused by a low "ceiling", not a hindrance.The cabin has the most simple way, put along the sides rather narrow benches.Such popularity of his brainchild general designer commented rather bitterly, calling him a "tin can with wings."However, the picture An-2 with Aeroflotovskie "wings", the skis near the Chukchi yurts, against the background of mountain pastures, or simply on a rural field, often met in the Soviet press of those years.The ticket price was modest, sometimes for three rubles could fly to the neighboring district center, comfortable and unpretentious different, but people spoke about "Annushka" very warm.
Maid John ...
until 1963 An-2 was the only Soviet aircraft.In 1958 the documentation of its production under the socialist international cooperation gave the NDP, and the release of Soviet factories began to phase out.The Polish company PZL-Mielec put "on the wing" is almost 12 thousand biplanes, which are mainly purchased the Soviet Union (more than 10 thousand).Terms of delivery in the "historic homeland" have been agreed upon in advance, and the remaining machines were used in socialist countries and other regions of the world, where he appreciated this unique aircraft.
Machinery Antonov Design Bureau were recognized in China.There mass produce under license the An-24 (Y-received index 7) and An-2 (Y-5).The total number of copies made in the world "Annushka" exceeded eighteen thousand, 2012 of them in technically working order 2300 units.Antonov An-2 according to the Guinness - survivor-record holder, he produced for over six decades.
the helm "Annushka»
All pilots with experience of piloting a biplane (by the way, very large), noted its unique "volatility".Most of the relative area of bearing surfaces almost eliminates this unpleasant phenomenon as "svalivaemost."With a headwind of 50 km / h the AN-2 can virtually "hover on the spot", hovering over a fixed point of the earth.This leads to the ability to plan in the mode is turned off or malfunctioning engine.Simple, but very well-designed brakes, similar to those used in trucks, reduce run-down after landing, and the requirements for the runway is very conditional.The cabin of An-2 special comfort is different, but nevertheless comfortable, two pilots are not closely enough space.Glazing is provided with projections in order to improve visibility.
chassis is not removed, which, of course, with the aerodynamic point of view, is bad, but perfect in terms of reliability.Inflate pneumatic possible without leaving the cabin, there is a built-in compressor.In addition to conventional wheels are mounted on the regular fixing skis for operation in winter or polar conditions or special floats resembling boats, kayaks, through which the plane turns into a seaplane.
Dressed unit independently, without refueling, the fuel pump is provided, capable of pumping fuel from the barrels directly into tanks.
Such structural and operational simplicity made this aircraft indispensable in many cases.It was used as a flying laboratory, air ambulance, a fire truck cruise.Huge popularity was the An-2 flying club, many athletes-jumpers made their first jump, stepped into the open door of a biplane.For meteorological reconnaissance version has been created with an additional cabin to review the horizontal tail.If necessary, this plane can be transformed into an ultra-light attack aircraft, hanging him Nursi and bombs.It will of course be low-speed, but will ensure the accuracy of hitting.
Flight Characteristics and performance of this machine is such that there is still, in some cases there is no change of aircraft An-2.Specifications him and in our time it is good for the class of light vehicles.Take-off weight - 5.5 tons with a payload of 1.5 tons. The space allocated for cargo, limited height of 1.8 m, a width of 1.6 m and a length of 4.1 m. The normal seating capacity - 12 people.To take off quite a dirt area 235 meters long, and landing - less than 10 meters.Ceiling - 4200, but generally takes flight at lower altitudes.Cruising speed An-2 is 180 km / h, the maximum reach 235 km / h (at full load).The machine can fly non-stop for nearly a thousand kilometers.
Anyone, even a sample of the most successful technology eventually becomes obsolete.No exception and the AN-2.Features It's good, but in our time demands on power plant changed.At a time when ordinary gazvoda cost more than gasoline, its consumption paid little attention.This trend continued for a long time, but the rise in the cost of petroleum products caused her to reconsider.
engine An-2 carburetor, tysyachesilny very reliable but ... Gasoline requires a special, air, it's expensive.Yes, and its consumption is also considerable.In some countries, including Canada and the United States this type of aircraft is prohibited.However, collectors and there willingly become the An-2.The price of half a million rubles and higher does not stop those who want to get the pleasure of piloting "vintage airplane."
second youth AN-2
KB Antonov was one of the first to install turbine engines screw transport and passenger planes.The advantages are many: the fuel - kerosene, high reliability, efficiency, noise reduction.In the fifties, the design office has offered to perform version of An-2, equipped with a theater (the turbo-propeller engine), but the management of the aviation industry effort preferred direct on the priority projects of medium luxury ships, intended to replace the Il-14 and Li-2, who worked at that timeAll regional routes.Besides motors suitable sizes while not.But in the late 70's engine specialists from Omsk constructed HPT-20, it is suitable for "Annushka".In 1990 he was ready to An-3, with a glider, almost took out "inherited" from the An-2, but with a different powerplant.In the series, he did not go, prevented economic difficulties.The project resumed in 1997, adding a modern avionics.The most promising area of modernization "Annushek" considered "remotoring" aircraft to keep at least half the lifespan.
Works in this direction are under way in Ukraine, where the engine is used MS-14 "Motor Sich".There is another option (Novosibirsk) modernization of the famous biplanes, involves the installation of modern American motor company Honeywell.This modification was named AN-2ms.
In all these cases, the installation of the turbine solves the problem of noise, excessive fuel consumption and guarantee waiver of expensive gasoline "100".In all other respects, the AN-2 - a wonderful machine.There is reason to assume that it will have a long life in the sky over the woods, fields and cities.