State system of ancient Russia had in its submission a special institution, which was built on a system of local government.This structure is created similarly Western European fief-office - administrative, appointed public offices in the province.Appointments "on the spot" comes "from above", by special order of the king or prince.Feeding in Russia - is an analogue of fief-office, in which the state gave money instead of other forms of remuneration for the service.
in specific times of the Russian state organized local government under the leadership of volosteley and various governors sent from the capital by special decree.Payment for their work carried out in the field, although the indication of the amount of the remuneration was issued usually at the imperial palace.Feeding system in ancient Russia implies that the temporary representatives of royal power will be maintained by the local authorities.Along with the money allowances they were given food, horses, servants and age
constant presence of the governors in the first county-level cities was not required, but sometimes the content was so impressive that gradually governors pointed his stay in place as a permanent service.Accordingly, increased and their term of the service of the Prince - and thus increased and feeding.In ancient Rus' this occupation find attractive not only local people, but also foreigners.Representatives of the younger genera known European names not be shunned governors in Russia - this activity allowed to return home quite wealthy person.
In times of Muscovy system of local government is still kept in the viceroyalty.As before governors and volostiteli disposed of on the ground, to judge and collected taxes.Feeding in Muscovy called the content of such visitors servicemen.Location Service governor is usually located in the center of the county.Here he repaired the court and council on all administrative matters within the city and outskirts, as well as to judge for criminal within small districts, which was so rich Russian state.The district boundaries were within the competence of the military forces of the governor, the arsenal and strategically important objects - bridges, dams and so on.
The governors were usually chosen representatives of famous names, this position is often passed from father to son.For example, a well-known genus of Protasevyh namestnichestvoval Meshersky in the region for almost two centuries - from the early 15th to late 16th centuries.This noble family, along with the names of other governors, known in Russia in a series of prominent public figures and supporters of the king.All of these titles of honor would not be possible without a strong rear material, much of which were rich offerings of the local authorities.Thus, feeding in Russia called quite a decent position with inexhaustible sources of income that could ensure a comfortable life for generations.
Volostiteli held court and council regardless of the governor, in their submission were separate districts, but the list of their powers differed.They are usually dismantled minor offenses, economic disputes, considered administrative offenses.Unlike governors, representatives neimenitogo volostitelyami became impoverished nobility or gentry.Early in his career biographies are full of posts tiuns volostiteley, secretaries, clerks, policemen clerks.That is their social level was an order of magnitude lower than that of the governors.Nevertheless, feeding in ancient Russia not only helps them to cope with the problem of living, but also allowed to enrich themselves at the expense of good local government.
usually work in local government was seen as a position that allows you to have a good income.Feeding in Russia - a source of unjust enrichment of many nobles, who is not very eager to fulfill their direct duties.Instead, they directed themselves to the place of his servants - tiuns and closers.They also extended feeding.In Russia, this activity was so attractive that the position of Chiune taken lightly given bribes.Chiune had the right to administer justice and to hear cases on behalf of the governor, in fact they are directly fulfilled his duties, and have this good sum.
Income from feeding
list of revenues from feeding consisted of several parts.A certain proportion of feeding was going on the ground with money, but mostly feeding in Russia - it levies natural products.Feeding going two or three times a year, on the great religious holidays - Easter, St. Peter's Day, Christmas.It was also known feeding Driving - they usually met the new governor in the county.Collection was carried out by designated people who are usually selected from the local.They appointed positions constables and stewards.Typically, these officials except collecting feeding taxes collected in the field and forced the local population to carry out various duties.
At the beginning of its development, Russian State consisted of small principalities, the dimensions of which were small, and the judicial and administrative activities of the local authorities were all in sight.Another strong were the ancient laws and customs, and ordinary people have always been able to complain to the Prince on the arbitrariness of his slaves, or to change their place of residence, having moved down from a careless ruler to another principality.But when picking lands around Moscow was almost completed and became strong centralization of power, ordinary people had hard times.It was then that there was a saying: "By God, high and far to the king."Governorship system practically ceased to perform his duties, that its representatives had to perform for feeding.In Russia, the concept quickly became synonymous with bribery and extortion.The extent of corruption have taken such dimensions that the central government to think seriously about reform of local self-government.
organization of local government was made possible thanks to the reform of Ivan the Terrible.One of its major steps was the transfer of a larger number of powers to Provincial Office.Gradually volostiteli and governors have disappeared, and with them ceased to function and feeding system.