In recent years, becoming a popular black-yellow-white imperial flag or white-yellow-black.What is the significance of the imperial flag?What is its history?Why is he forgotten?For many decades, debate continues about what the flag - Imperial.And each side is irrefutable evidence of his innocence.But then the question arises: whether to return to the imperial flag?
In 1453 Constantinople fell, two months holding the siege of the Ottomans.It was the last hope of the Byzantine Empire.At the siege of the Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus he was killed.
After some time, the Vatican began to look for allies, intending to organize a crusade against the Turks.It could become a strong ally of Moscow State, which rules then Ivan III.Therefore, the Pope married to Ivan III, Sophia Paleologus - the niece of Emperor Constantine XI.The Pope hoped that this marriage will bear fruit: the former possessions of Byzantium inning.In addition, the Vatican wanted to Muscovy took the Union of Florence an
married to Sophia Palaeologus, Ivan III became king and protector of Orthodoxy.But Moscow has become the heir of Constantinople and Rome.Because changed the emblem of the Moscow State.Byzantine emblem allied with Moscow - yellow field and the two-headed black eagle and a white one on horseback, striking snake.
Alexis introduced this coat of arms in circulation.And other rulers follow the tradition of the image of the emblem.
Senate in 1731 issued a decree by which each infantry and dragoon regiment had to be scarves and hats with the colors of the emblem.The Russian army was to be used for clothing gold and black silk.In addition, they now have white bows.
Peter I introduces new colors
imperial flag as such did not exist at that time.Tri-color (white, blue and red) flag appeared in Russia, according to most historians, during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich.Military ship "Eagle" was the banner that was used for the manufacture of chervchataya, azure and white matter, that is red, white and blue.It's not all notices detail destroys the main argument of critics of the tricolor, as most believed that Peter I "brought back" to our country this flag.Peter the Great also traced another flag: a white cloth was divided blue cross straight into four equal parts, called Kryzhi.The first and fourth - white, second and third - red.Toward the end of the XVII century is firmly held on to the flag mast Russian courts.
After a trip to Holland, the young king decided to build ships, so I went to Arkhangelsk.On the way to the capital, he went to Vologda, where Archbishop Athanasius presented three flags from his ship.The biggest was the "king of the flag of Moscow."It consisted of three horizontal bands of white, blue and red (top to bottom).Also on the panel was sewn two-headed eagle holding a scepter and orb.Chest eagle red shield decorated with St. George.
There is a version that the flag he created in the Arkhangelsk.Some sources claim that the Russian flag was conceived by the type of the Dutch tricolor, but with a different order of colors.But the mistake lies in the fact that Peter I had already created the flag to the trip to Holland.
When the flag of the Moscow tsar white-blue-red flag with the emblem of the imperial sewn remained the royal standard of the ship.In 1697 Peter introduced a new tricolor flag, without the sewn eagle.
When Peter I was fighting tricolor Russian flag, land and sea forces.But during the Northern War, the Army and Navy began to use the flag of St. Andrew.In 1705, January 20, Peter I ordered the use of the white-blue-red flag only in the Merchant Navy.
in post-Petrine time greatest influence German environment reigning persons.Therefore, the national colors were almost lost.
imperial flag also complements the imperial standard.It approved the Peter I: a yellow flag shows a black two-headed eagle, holding a card with the White Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea.Pretty soon it was added the fourth Chart.Part of the Baltic Sea joined in 1703.
Before that, in 1696, the emperor created the heraldic banner, which was based on use during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich.The banner was red with a white border, the center was a golden eagle which hovered over the sea.In the circle on his chest represented the Savior, the next - the Holy Spirit, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul.
In 1742 the coronation of Elizabeth.Before this event created a new state flag of empire: a yellow flag - the black double-headed eagle, surrounded by 31 oval shield with the arms.Then, on the wings of an eagle have not portrayed territorial emblems.
Baron Karl Kёne Bergard created the second state banner.He prepared for the coronation of Alexander II (1856, August 26).In addition to the state flag, Bernhard Kёne created as large, medium and small emblem of the Russian Empire.After he created the coat of arms of the House of Romanov and generally spent heraldic coats of arms of the Russian territorial reform.The basic idea was to establish Kёne colors that reflect the colors of the emblem on flags, banners.Holiday drapes and uniforms also had these shades.So it was decided in the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire.But the colors were approved stamp when Anna Ioannovna (1731, August 17).
So as the state emblem was a golden shield, a two-headed black eagle, silver crown, scepter and orb, the Bergard Carl Kёne reasoned that armorial colors according to the rules of heraldry are black, gold and silver.
In 1883 was created the banner of the third State for the coronation of Alexander III.His he painted by Belashёv.But instead of gold brocade silk cloth was used, having the color of old gold.
for the coronation of Nicholas II, held in 1896, completed the fourth state banner.Its manufactured from fabric with gold embroidery, and not with a list.
Strengthening national unity
Ends Patriotic War with Napoleon, and white and yellow and black flag began to hang out only on holidays.The existence of a flag as such lasted only until its formal adoption.Nicholas I ordered to use the colors of the flag of the future imperial cockade on civil servants.
Nicholas I tried to take all the state symbols and attributes.He was convinced that the way to strengthen the unity of the nation.That is why the emperor adopted a patriotic anthem "God Save the Tsar" as a state.
, Alexander II wanted to establish order in the state symbols, as it should lead to a pan-European heraldic standards.Therefore, in 1857 the Emperor appointed Karl Baron Bergarda Kёne-chief of the stamp of the Department.
1858 is the point at which begins the history of the imperial flag as a state.In 1858, June 11, Alexander II signed a decree that approved the new sovereign flag.Only now it was inverted: black-yellow-white.He had to hang on all state institutions, state-owned buildings.At the same time individuals have the right to use only flag merchant marine old tricolor: white, blue, red.
author of the project of the imperial flag was made by Bernhard Karl-Kёne.It was his idea to make black-and-yellow-white imperial flag.What do the colors on the flag?Why Baron turned the flag?Generally heraldry inverted flag represents mourning.In the sea - it is a signal of distress.This could not be unaware wonderful heraldist Kёne.Symbolically or not, but after that the fate of the country began to change dramatically for the worse.
paintings "fix" the arrangement of colors in the following order: white, yellow and black.
colors of the flag of the Imperial Russia are deep meaning, which makes us think about the past, present and future of the country.We will consider the first version of the imperial flag.
bottom layer - black - is the personification of sovereign Emblem Empire.It focuses stability and prosperity of the whole country, with strong and inviolable borders and the unity of the nation.
middle layer - yellow - moral development, high spirituality of the Russian people.Also this color is interpreted as a reference to the days of the Byzantine Empire - as the progenitor of Russian in the Orthodox world.
top layer - white - prayer and appeal to George, who for many centuries, is the patron saint of the Russian lands.In addition, the color is a symbol of sacrifice of the Russian people.He is ready to shock the world in a rush to give all for their country, if only to keep her own greatness and honor.
There is another version of what is the color of the imperial flag.White strip - Orthodoxy is the foundation and the basis of life.Yellow stripe - autocracy, which is approved for Orthodoxy, since it is the only form of authority given by God.Black Stripe - a nation that is founded on Orthodoxy and autocracy.Black - because it is the color of earth, Russia must live noble work on the ground.
White-yellow-black flag as the state flag in the next 15-20 years, was seen clearly and not disputed.But closer to the 70-th years of the XIX century in the Empire strengthened the opposition of the liberal circles, which opposes the monarchy.Its members wanted in the country began to follow the Western model of development.As a result, they had a craving for European symbolism.Approved by Peter I flag to some extent related to the European symbolism.
monarchists fought for the preservation of the imperial flag.Their motives are quite clear: one nation - a single empire, and therefore the one imperial flag.What does all together - the country is strong and invincible.
imperial flag: two of them?
1881 - the year of the death of Alexander II.His death came at a very difficult and important moment for the country.Pretty soon, Alexander III (1883, April 28) gave the white-blue-red flag sovereign status, even though he offered to do it only trade flag.The situation is complicated by the fact that the action of the imperial flag was not canceled.
In 1887, the Order was issued by the military authorities, who claimed black-yellow-white imperial flags as national.
situation was very ambivalent, should immediately decide something.In April 1896 representatives of the Academy of Sciences and Ministry decided that the new sovereign flag may be national.And the imperial flag does not have any heraldic tradition.
Nicholas II ordered his coronation to prepare a new coronation banner, the prototype of which were similar to the banners of his predecessors.
In March 1896, before the coronation of Nicholas II brought together representatives from the Academy of Sciences and a foreign and different ministries.The meeting decided that it should be called the national tricolor, Russia.Colors his behalf state (red, blue and white).
Interpretation of the new tricolor
new flag colors - white, blue and red - have become national and received an official interpretation.So, the new imperial flag.What does each of his band?
most popular decoding is as follows:
- white - the symbol of nobility and sincerity;
- blue - a symbol of honesty, chastity, fidelity and integrity;
- red - a symbol of courage, love, courage and generosity.
Red - statehood.Blue - Our Lady, covering Russia.White - freedom and independence.Also, these colors are said Commonwealth White, Little and Great Russia.Despite the difficult history of the flag, in fact, because of its color, there is no historical and heraldic meaning.
Interestingly, the Provisional Government continued to use the new tricolor as the state.The Soviet Union did not immediately refused the tricolor.Only in 1918 Sverdlov put forward for approval by fighting the red flag, which became a state for 70 years.
Before the revolution
But the debate continued.In 1910, May 10, was established by a special meeting, chaired by the Minister of Justice AN Veryovkin.The purpose of this meeting was to clarify the question as to which are the same color state, national.Above this problem worked most prominent scientists, heraldry.Despite the long work, they could not find a clear heraldic study for any of the flags.But most scientists believe that the national colors - a black, yellow and white.Russian imperial flag to wear these colors.Another flag can only be used by merchant ships in inland waters.
In addition, the monarchists would return the "correct" flag to mark the approaching 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty.
July 27, 1912 meeting was held, during which decided to get a second opinion from the point of view of the practical feasibility and acceptability.This had to do with the special committee of the Naval Ministry.
Commission held two meetings.Most of the votes in the result agreed that a special meeting at the Ministry of Justice has proposed an inconvenient reform.
Council of Ministers of 10 September 1914 decided to refer issues to the Ministry of Marine flags.But since 1914, the government and society could no longer deal with heraldic disputes.We managed to create a "symbiosis" of both flags.White-blue-red flag in the "Kryzhi" now had yellow square with the two-headed black eagle.In World War I it demonstrated the unity of the nation and the monarchy.
Government of the Russian Federation November 5, 1990 decided to set up projects of the State Emblem and flag of the country.To this end, we established a government commission.In the course of an idea to revive the white-blue-red flag.All supported it unanimously.And 1 November 1991 at the Congress of People's Deputies of Russia, adopted an amendment to the Constitution.In addition, the amended article, which described the state flag.
Imperial flag today
Recently repeatedly raised the question of whether to return to the imperial flag.But in this matter a lot of inaccuracies.Starting with the fact that it is unknown the exact and proper arrangement of flowers.In addition, it is the flag of the imperial family.In a sense, Russia is now returning the flag - the flag of the imperial - is inappropriate.
Unfortunately, many people do not understand what it means to imperial flag.It is often mistaken for a Nazi flag, confusing them with the nationalists.
There is an interesting modern version of the banner of - "Kolovrat".Imperial is the symbolism of the flag, which is understandable for people and dedicated Rodnoverie.Center cloth is an ancient symbol of the Slavic peoples - Kolovrat, or gromovnik.When our ancestors drew the solar symbol, they called to the aid of the gods.They were counting on their help in military business.Asked rich harvest, we wanted to get the sacred knowledge that almost reached our time.Now the little understood, which means Russian imperial flag.But for some people it still embodies the grandeur and the victory of the Russian Empire.